During embryonic development these inner cell mass cells continuously divide and become more specialized. For example, a portion of the ectoderm in the dorsal part of the embryo specializes as 'neurectoderm', which will become the future central nervous system.[11] Later in development, neurulation causes the neurectoderm to form the neural tube. At the neural tube stage, the anterior portion undergoes encephalization to generate or 'pattern' the basic form of the brain. At this stage of development, the principal cell type of the CNS is considered a neural stem cell. These neural stem cells are pluripotent, as they can generate a large diversity of many different neuron types, each with unique gene expression, morphological, and functional characteristics. The process of generating neurons from stem cells is called neurogenesis. One prominent example of a neural stem cell is the radial glial cell, so named because it has a distinctive bipolar morphology with highly elongated processes spanning the thickness of the neural tube wall, and because historically it shared some glial characteristics, most notably the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).[12][13] The radial glial cell is the primary neural stem cell of the developing vertebrate CNS, and its cell body resides in the ventricular zone, adjacent to the developing ventricular system. Neural stem cells are committed to the neuronal lineages (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes), and thus their potency is restricted.[11]

 Hot on the heels of Peau Magnifique was Amatokin by Voss Laboratories. Amatokin was marketed by the same people behind the StriVectin craze and launched exclusively at Bloomingdale's. Amatokin works by stimulating the adult stem cell reservoirs in our skin to help rejuvenate it. From the day we are born, our skin experiences the incremental and cumulative effects of intrinsic and extrinsic aging. When we are young, stem cell utilization for skin rejuvenation functions efficiently. As we age, it reduces significantly. Given the proper environment, these inherent stem cell reservoirs can be stimulated to renew the skin. 3
To date, more than 120 human ES cell lines have been established worldwide,33* 67 of which are included in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Registry. As of this writing, 21 cell lines are currently available for distribution, all of which have been exposed to animal products during their derivation. Although it has been eight years since the initial derivation of human ES cells, it is an open question as to the extent that independent human ES cell lines differ from one another. At the very least, the limited number of cell lines cannot represent a reasonable sampling of the genetic diversity of different ethnic groups in the United States, and this has consequences for drug testing, as adverse reactions to drugs often reflect a complex genetic component. Once defined culture conditions are well established for human ES cells, there will be an even more compelling need to derive additional cell lines.
The company Mibelle AG Biochemistry at Buchs (Switzerland) carried out experiments where they incubated human fibroblasts induced with typical aging symptoms of damage to cellular DNA, in 2% stem cell extract from Uttwiler Spätlauber that could reverse the aging process of skin fibroblasts by upregulating the expression of several genes vital for cellular proliferation and growth as well as stimulate the expression of the valid antioxidant enzyme hemeoxygenase-1 [11]. It also demonstrated effectiveness in enhancing the viability of umbilical cord blood stem cells and to increase the lifespan of isolated human hair follicles. Lecithin liposomes were used as a delivery carrier for the extract. Clinical trial of Malus domestica (Phytocell Tech™), a liposome encapsulated extract of cultured apple stem cells as a cosmetic ingredient has shown significant potential to reduce wrinkles in the crow's feet area of the face [11]. Depth of wrinkles was measured using the optical device, PRIMOS system for 3D skin surface display, and showed that the wrinkles became shallower by 8% after 2 weeks and shallower by 15% after 4 weeks.
Just when you think that skin-care ingredients can’t get any wackier (snake venom, anyone?), along come stem cells, popping up in all kinds of creams and serums. “Stem cells have a mystique—they’re chameleon-like cells that are thought to be able to make skin look fresh and young,” says Erin Gilbert, a dermatologist in New York City. But are they the key to finding the fountain of youth?
More than just a cheesy song from The Sound of Music, edelweiss are tiny flowers that withstand harsh alpine climes. They are full of leontopodic acids, which are strong antioxidants. An Italian company that produces the edelweiss stem cells explains an interesting technique in which they chop up some of the plant’s biomass, and the surrounding cells revert to stem cells in order to protect the plant with a wound healing tissue called callus.
Oftentimes, conditions affecting the skin of the scalp will result in hair loss. The first clue to the specific cause is the pattern of hair loss, whether it be complete baldness (alopecia totalis), patchy bald spots, thinning, or hair loss confined to certain areas. Also a factor is the condition of the hair and the scalp beneath it. Sometimes only the hair is affected; sometimes the skin is visibly diseased as well.
Pluripotent means many "potentials". In other words, these cells have the potential of taking on many fates in the body, including all of the more than 200 different cell types. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, as are induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that are reprogrammed from adult tissues. When scientists talk about pluripotent stem cells, they mostly mean either embryonic or iPS cells.
Testing whether the human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent by 1) allowing the cells to differentiate spontaneously in cell culture; 2) manipulating the cells so they will differentiate to form cells characteristic of the three germ layers; or 3) injecting the cells into a mouse with a suppressed immune system to test for the formation of a benign tumor called a teratoma. Since the mouse’s immune system is suppressed, the injected human stem cells are not rejected by the mouse immune system and scientists can observe growth and differentiation of the human stem cells. Teratomas typically contain a mixture of many differentiated or partly differentiated cell types—an indication that the embryonic stem cells are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types.
Embryonic stem cells could be used to make more specialized tissues that have been lost to disease and injury. For tissues that are constantly replaced, like blood and skin, stem cells would probably be replaced directly. Researchers are also exploring ways to use stem cells to treat diabetes, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, heart disease and vision and hearing loss, among others.
A number of treatments are available for hair loss. When hair loss is a sign or symptom of an underlying illness, that condition is typically treated first. Options for the more common hereditary hair loss that occurs with aging include both over-the-counter treatments and therapies available from your doctor that encourage the regrowth of hair. Surgical techniques can be used to transplant the hair or area of skin where hair growth occurs to one where it has ceased.
Thomson's group at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center in Madison, in collaboration with the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, Israel, and the University of Wisconsin, reports the derivation of five independent cell lines from the inner cell masses of 14 blastocysts (11). The ES cell lines were continuously cultured for 5 to 6 months and expressed high levels of telomerase activity, characteristic of cells with high replicative life-span. The cell lines had normal karyotypes (two male and three female) and expressed cell surface markers characteristic of ES cells. Four cell lines tested produced teratomas when grown in immunocompromised mice. Histology of the tumors revealed differentiated cells derived from all three embryonic germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and definitive endoderm)—a result consistent with pluripotency.
Heterogeneity in the secretome profiles of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) derived from different donors or tissues results in inconsistent stem cell potency. A minimal set of proangiogenic factors consisting of angiogenin, IL‐8, MCP‐1, and vascular endothelial growth factor that are selected from this study is proposed as efficient biomarkers for predicting vascular regenerative efficacy in the treatment of ischemic disease. These biomarkers will be helpful for manufacturing stem cells that are reproducibly effective in the clinic.
Melton still has plans for the β-cells he’s made from ES cells. He hopes to transplant them into people with type 1 diabetes to end, or at least reduce, their reliance on insulin injections. The last hurdle in the work is introducing the cells so that they are not destroyed by the immune system. Semma Therapeutics, a company that Melton founded in Cambridge, aims to do this by ensconcing the cells in a pouch that would allow nutrients in and insulin out, but would block access to immune cells. He expects to start clinical trials within three years. ViaCyte in San Diego, California, paused enrolment for a clinical trial it launched in 2014 to redesign its encapsulation technology. Last year, it started a separate clinical trial using a modified delivery mechanism. And other companies, such as Novo Nordisk in Denmark are starting up programmes for diabetes using cells derived from ES cells.
Alopecia is hair loss that can be caused by heredity, aging, disease, medications or lifestyle. The timing and course of hair loss can provide clues to its cause. For example, hair loss that comes on suddenly may be attributed to illness, diet, or medical treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation. Gradual hair loss that becomes more prominent over the years is likely to be hereditary and a normal occurrence of aging. This form of hair loss, known as androgenetic alopecia, is the most common cause and a natural symptom of the aging process.

The derivation of human ES cells now raises a whole new set of expectations. On the basis of the use and study of mouse ES cells, the research and clinical potential for human ES cells is enormous. They will be important for in vitro studies of normal human embryogenesis, abnormal development (through the generation of cell lines with targeted gene alterations and engineered chromosomes), human gene discovery, and drug and teratogen testing and as a renewable source of cells for tissue transplantation, cell replacement, and gene therapies. These latter applications could eventually preclude the direct use of fetal tissue in transplantation therapies.
It is important to consider the scientific context in which this advancement came. The late-1990s and early-2000s had yielded a number of other major scientific advancements, including sequencing of the human genome (Lander et al., 2001) and cloning of the first mammal, Dolly the sheep (Campbell et al., 1996). Thus, within a few short years, science had delivered the genetic blueprint of humanity, techniques to completely dedifferentiate a cell and grow a new mammal from it, and early human cells that could develop into any tissue. Understandably, this triggered a response that extended beyond the scientific community and into the lay press, public coffeehouses, churches and political forums. Most countries are still debating the extent to which human embryonic stem cell research should be regulated, and public policies range widely, from governmental encouragement, to legal restrictions, to outright bans. While not the topic of this chapter, we would encourage all readers to explore the ethics and policy implications of human embryonic stem cell research, and we refer those interested to references (Green, 2001; Daley et al., 2007; Sugarman, 2007) for in-depth analyses.
A stem cell line is a group of cells that all descend from a single original stem cell and is grown in a lab. Cells in a stem cell line keep growing but don't differentiate into specialized cells. Ideally, they remain free of genetic defects and continue to create more stem cells. Clusters of cells can be taken from a stem cell line and frozen for storage or shared with other researchers.
Nearly all research to date has made use of mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) or human embryonic stem cells (hES) derived from the early inner cell mass. Both have the essential stem cell characteristics, yet they require very different environments in order to maintain an undifferentiated state. Mouse ES cells are grown on a layer of gelatin as an extracellular matrix (for support) and require the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in serum media. A drug cocktail containing inhibitors to GSK3B and the MAPK/ERK pathway, called 2i, has also been shown to maintain pluripotency in stem cell culture.[14] Human ESCs are grown on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and require the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2).[15] Without optimal culture conditions or genetic manipulation,[16] embryonic stem cells will rapidly differentiate.

a cyclic follicular dysplasia which tends to occur seasonally, mainly in spring or fall. There is a nonpruritic hair loss and often hyperpigmentation of the skin in irregular, defined areas on the flanks and lateral thorax. Many cases regrow hair after 3 to 6 months, but recurrences at the corresponding time in following years is common. Boxers, Airedale terriers, English bulldogs, and Miniature schnauzers are predisposed breeds, but it has been reported in others. Called also cyclic follicular dysplasia.


All stem cells can self-renew (make copies of themselves) and differentiate (develop into more specialized cells). Beyond these two critical abilities, though, stem cells vary widely in what they can and cannot do and in the circumstances under which they can and cannot do certain things. This is one of the reasons researchers use all types of stem cells in their investigations.
Stem cells may also hold the key to replacing cells lost in many other devastating diseases for which there are currently no sustainable cures. Today, donated tissues and organs are often used to replace damaged tissue, but the need for transplantable tissues and organs far outweighs the available supply. Stem cells, if they can be directed to differentiate into specific cell types, offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat diseases including Parkinson's, stroke, heart disease and diabetes. This prospect is an exciting one, but significant technical hurdles remain that will only be overcome through years of intensive research.
Another method is to wear a hat or a hairpiece—a wig or toupee. The wig is a layer of artificial or natural hair made to resemble a typical hair style. In most cases the hair is artificial. Wigs vary widely in quality and cost. In the United States, the best wigs—those that look like real hair—cost up to tens of thousands of dollars. Organizations also collect individuals' donations of their own natural hair to be made into wigs for young cancer patients who have lost their hair due to chemotherapy or other cancer treatment in addition to any type of hair loss.

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Other possibilities include means of reducing or abolishing cell immunogenicity. ES cells, unlike adult cells, can be easily modified genetically by, for example, inserting immunosuppressive molecules such as Fas ligand, or removing immunoactive proteins such as B7 antigens (53). Alternatively, one could delete the foreign MHC genes or insert genes coding for the recipient's MHC (54).

Corticosteroids: This medicine suppresses the immune system. It can be given as shots, with the dermatologist injecting the medicine into the places with hair loss. Sometimes a patient gets a topical (applied to the skin) form of this medicine. It may be a cream, lotion, or ointment. The patient applies the medicine to the bare spots. Less often, patients take corticosteroid pills.
On the other hand, embryonic stem cells — derived from five-day old blastocysts that are precursors to embryos — are pluripotent in nature. They can generate any kind of cell in the body, any kind of tissue. This is why they are of such value to scientists doing both basic research in the lab and medical research in the clinic. They have the potential to regenerate tissue and cells that have been lost because of disease or injury.
Alopecia areata is patchy hair loss of autoimmune origin7 (Figure 3). It usually presents as a single oval patch or multiple confluent patches of asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, non-scarring alopecia. Severity varies from a small bare patch to loss of hair on the entire scalp. So-called “exclamation point” hairs are a hallmark of the disorder. These hairs are usually located at the periphery of the patch and extend several millimeters above the scalp.16

Jump up ^ Karanes C, Nelson GO, Chitphakdithai P, Agura E, Ballen KK, Bolan CD, Porter DL, Uberti JP, King RJ, Confer DL (2008). "Twenty years of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for adult recipients facilitated by the National Marrow Donor Program". Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 14 (9 Suppl): 8–15. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.06.006. PMID 18721775.
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Corticosteroids: This medicine suppresses the immune system. It can be given as shots, with the dermatologist injecting the medicine into the places with hair loss. Sometimes a patient gets a topical (applied to the skin) form of this medicine. It may be a cream, lotion, or ointment. The patient applies the medicine to the bare spots. Less often, patients take corticosteroid pills.
The currently preferred treatment for androgenetic alopecia is topically administered 2 percent minoxidil.6,8,9 Minoxidil appears to affect the hair follicle in three ways: it increases the length of time follicles spend in anagen, it “wakes up” follicles that are in catagen, and it enlarges the actual follicles. The mechanism by which minoxidil effects these changes is not known. Vellus hairs enlarge and are converted to terminal hairs. In addition, shedding is reduced.
Annually, many thousands of infertile couples create embryos for in-vitro fertilization (IVF), by having their eggs and sperm mixed and fertilized in a petri dish. Usually the potential mother is stimulated with hormones and provides a number of eggs. Similarly, the potential father has millions of sperm in his ejaculated semen. Normally all the eggs are exposed to sperm and a number of become fertilized and become embryos. The best looking embryos are incubated long enough to become blastocysts. Usually three are implanted into the potential mother's uterus. The remaining embryos are stored in liquid nitrogen in case of pregnancy failure or for later use if the family wants another child. These embryos are stored in cryobanks. Many of them eventually become available for research. With informed donor consent from both parents, these frozen embryos have the potential for providing most of the necessary raw material for stem cell research.
During days 3-5 following fertilization and prior to implantation, the embryo (at this stage, called a blastocyst), contains an inner cell mass that is capable of generating all the specialized tissues that make up the human body.  ESCs are derived from the inner cell mass of an embryo that has been fertilized in vitro and donated for research purposes following informed consent.  ESCs are not derived from eggs fertilized in a woman’s body. 
Diabetes results from abnormal function of pancreatic β-cells, which are responsible for insulin synthesis, storage, and release. Lack or defect of insulin produces diabetes mellitus, a devastating disease suffered by 150 million people in the world. Transplantation of insulin-producing cells could be a cure for type 1 and some cases of type 2 diabetes.
The breakthrough has created a way to “de-differentiate” the stem cells. This may make them more useful in understanding how diseases develop. Scientists are hoping that the cells can be made from someone’s own skin to treat a disease. This will help prevent the immune system from rejecting an organ transplant. Research is underway to find ways to produce iPSCs safely.
A somewhat more controlled method to differentiate ES cells is to co-culture them with differentiated cells that induce their differentiation to specific lineages. For example, MS5, S2, and PA6 stromal cells have been used to derive dopamine neurons from human ES cells (Perrier et al., 2004; Zeng et al., 2004); bone marrow stromal cell lines S17 and OP9 support efficient hematopoietic differentiation (Kaufman et al., 2001; Vodyanik et al., 2005). The inducing activity provided by such stromal cells, while efficient in directing ES cell differentiation, contains many unknown factors, and such activity can change both between and within cell lines as a function of culture conditions.

Gail Martin derived and cultured her ES cells differently. She removed the embryos from the donor mother at approximately 76 hours after copulation and cultured them overnight in a medium containing serum. The following day, she removed the inner cell mass from the late blastocyst using microsurgery. The extracted inner cell mass was cultured on fibroblasts treated with mitomycin-c in a medium containing serum and conditioned by ES cells. After approximately one week, colonies of cells grew out. These cells grew in culture and demonstrated pluripotent characteristics, as demonstrated by the ability to form teratomas, differentiate in vitro, and form embryoid bodies. Martin referred to these cells as ES cells.[42]
In this study, application of chemotherapy treatment in AML‐ETO9a leukemia mice led to the enrichment of a chemotherapy‐resistant cell population identified as Lin‐c‐Kit+c‐MPL+. This c‐MPL‐positive cell population within Lin‐c‐Kit+ leukemia cells included a high percentage of cells in a quiescent state, enhanced colony formation ability and high potential for leukemia initiation. The results indicate that c‐MPL is a candidate leukemia stem cell (LSC) surface marker that may serve as a therapeutic target for the elimination of LSCs.
The National Institutes of Health created guidelines for human stem cell research in 2009. Guidelines included defining embryonic stem cells and how they may be used in research and donation guidelines for embryonic stem cells. Also, guidelines stated embryonic stem cells may only be used from embryos created by in vitro fertilization when the embryo is no longer needed.

March, 2009: Executive Order 13505 is signed by President Barack Obama, removing the restrictions put in place on federal funding for human stem cells by the previous presidential administration. This would allow the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to provide funding for hESC research. The document also states that the NIH must provide revised federal funding guidelines within 120 days of the order's signing.[48]

In theory, stem cells taken from the patient could be coaxed in the lab turning into a tooth bud which, when implanted in the gums, will give rise to a new tooth, and would be expected to be grown in a time over three weeks.[40] It will fuse with the jawbone and release chemicals that encourage nerves and blood vessels to connect with it. The process is similar to what happens when humans grow their original adult teeth. Many challenges remain, however, before stem cells could be a choice for the replacement of missing teeth in the future.[41][42]
My advice, if you can afford it and don’t mind being potentially disappointed, by all means go ahead and try stem cell products. But if you have a limited budget to spend on skin care, focus your purchases on ingredients that are already proven to deliver results to your skin, like peptides, retinoids, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory ingredients. And wait for stem cell technology to mature.
Alopecia areata is patchy hair loss of autoimmune origin7 (Figure 3). It usually presents as a single oval patch or multiple confluent patches of asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, non-scarring alopecia. Severity varies from a small bare patch to loss of hair on the entire scalp. So-called “exclamation point” hairs are a hallmark of the disorder. These hairs are usually located at the periphery of the patch and extend several millimeters above the scalp.16
Stem cells may also hold the key to replacing cells lost in many other devastating diseases for which there are currently no sustainable cures. Today, donated tissues and organs are often used to replace damaged tissue, but the need for transplantable tissues and organs far outweighs the available supply. Stem cells, if they can be directed to differentiate into specific cell types, offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat diseases including Parkinson's, stroke, heart disease and diabetes. This prospect is an exciting one, but significant technical hurdles remain that will only be overcome through years of intensive research.
Less common causes of hair loss without inflammation or scarring include the pulling out of hair, certain medications including chemotherapy, HIV/AIDS, hypothyroidism, and malnutrition including iron deficiency.[2][3] Causes of hair loss that occurs with scarring or inflammation include fungal infection, lupus erythematosus, radiation therapy, and sarcoidosis.[2][3] Diagnosis of hair loss is partly based on the areas affected.[3]

Jump up ^ Duncan FJ, Silva KA, Johnson CJ, King BL, Szatkiewicz JP, Kamdar SP, Ong DE, Napoli JL, Wang J, King LE, Whiting DA, McElwee KJ, Sundberg JP, Everts HB (February 2013). "Endogenous retinoids in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 133 (2): 334–43. doi:10.1038/jid.2012.344. PMC 3546144. PMID 23014334.


By 2012 a second wave of companies and clinics had emerged, usually located in developing countries where medicine is less regulated and offering stem cell therapies on a medical tourism model.[102][103] Like the first wave companies and clinics, they have made similar strong claims and also have not published their protocols or rigorous research; Mexico, Thailand, and India have been centers of this activity,[102] as has South Africa.[103]
Jump up ^ "His inspiration comes from the research by Prof Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University, which suggests a way to create human embryo stem cells without the need for human eggs, which are in extremely short supply, and without the need to create and destroy human cloned embryos, which is bitterly opposed by the pro life movement."Highfield, Roger (2007-11-16). "Dolly creator Prof Ian Wilmut shuns cloning". London: The Telegraph.
"I wish more people knew alopecia existed! Also, there are double standards amongst genders as to what hair loss means, but I think an important takeaway from that is that hair loss does not necessarily mean someone is sick. Personally, I am open about talking about alopecia and what it is, but not everyone is. I would much prefer to field questions than have someone come up to me with a blanket, 'Something is obviously wrong with you. Please know I'll be praying for you,' statement."
Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is often related to abortion politics and to human cloning. Additionally, efforts to market treatments based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.

Much of the public discussion about stem cells has focused on where stem cells come from. Adult stem cells can be found in specific tissues in our bodies. As mature cells, they are already specialized to perform certain functions and are somewhat more limited in their application for therapeutic purposes. Generally, they can make only the kind of cells found in the tissue where they reside.
Embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of very-early-stage embryos. These cells have the potential to give rise to all cell types in the body. In vitro-generated RPE-like cells derived from monkey and human embryonic stem cells express RPE markers closely resembling cultured and in situ fetal RPE., Transplantation of these cells into RCS rats provides long-term rescue under immunosuppression without loss of RPE phenotype or signs of tumor formation.

Once a stem cell line is established from a cell in the body, it is essentially immortal, no matter how it was derived. That is, the researcher using the line will not have to go through the rigorous procedure necessary to isolate stem cells again. Once established, a cell line can be grown in the laboratory indefinitely and cells may be frozen for storage or distribution to other researchers.


Treatment and recovery often depends on the severity of your alopecia. For instance, people with mild patchy hair loss may see it regrow within a few months without any treatment. If it's more widespread, though, your doctor may recommend steroid injections or topical medications. Although some people with even more severe symptoms may see hair regrowth eventually, there's currently no cure for alopecia. That means that finding a specialist well versed in managing your symptoms is crucial.
However, a study published in the online edition of Lancet Medical Journal on March 8, 2005 detailed information about a new stem cell line that was derived from human embryos under completely cell- and serum-free conditions. After more than 6 months of undifferentiated proliferation, these cells demonstrated the potential to form derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers both in vitro and in teratomas. These properties were also successfully maintained (for more than 30 passages) with the established stem cell lines.[66]

Alopecia areata tends to occur most often in adults 30 to 60 years of age. However, it can also affect older individuals and, rarely, young children. Alopecia areata is not contagious. It should be distinguished from hair shedding that may occur following the discontinuation of hormonal estrogen and progesterone therapies for birth control or the hair shedding associated with the end of pregnancy. There are a number of treatable conditions that could be confused with alopecia areata.
Though not comprehensive, some of the major sources that lead to skin aging include UV damage, environmental insults, inflammation, and an increase in reactive oxidative species in comparison to antioxidant load15,16. Overall, the damage created by these different sources leads to the deterioration and damage of epidermal tissue and loss of thickness as well as the loss of collagen and elastin in the dermis17. Though they may appear as distinct events, aging and wound healing have commonalities due to similar genetic and cellular pathways which compensate and replenish. During the initial phase of wound healing, inflammation arises via reactive oxygen species17. In the same manner, skin aging is often associated with the increase in the presence of reactive oxidative species17.
The successful derivation of murine ES cells from the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts was achieved in 1981, allowing culture conditions to be defined to support their unlimited propagation (3,4). Murine ES cells remain undifferentiated when grown in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and, for some cell lines, cultured on murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) as feeder cells (5,6) (see Figure 1). These cells were soon shown to be pluripotent, i.e., capable of forming all mature cell phenotypes derived from the three embryonic layers: endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm (2). In fact, when LIF or feeder cells are withdrawn, most types of ES cells differentiate spontaneously to form aggregates called embryoid bodies. These tridimentional cell–cell contacts allow the formation of heterogeneous cultures of differentiated cell types including cardiomyocytes (7,8), hematopoietic cells (9,10), endothelial cells (11–13), neurons (14,15), skeletal muscle (16,17), chondrocytes (18), adipocytes (19), liver (20), and pancreatic islets (21).
By 2012 a second wave of companies and clinics had emerged, usually located in developing countries where medicine is less regulated and offering stem cell therapies on a medical tourism model.[102][103] Like the first wave companies and clinics, they have made similar strong claims and also have not published their protocols or rigorous research; Mexico, Thailand, and India have been centers of this activity,[102] as has South Africa.[103]
You may hear the term “mesenchymal stem cell” or MSC to refer to cells isolated from stroma, the connective tissue that surrounds other tissues and organs. Cells by this name are more accurately called “stromal cells” by many scientists. The first MSCs were discovered in the bone marrow and were shown to be capable of making bone, cartilage and fat cells. Since then, they have been grown from other tissues, such as fat and cord blood. Various MSCs are thought to have stem cell, and even immunomodulatory, properties and are being tested as treatments for a great many disorders, but there is little evidence to date that they are beneficial. Scientists do not fully understand whether these cells are actually stem cells or what types of cells they are capable of generating. They do agree that not all MSCs are the same, and that their characteristics depend on where in the body they come from and how they are isolated and grown.
Gotu Kola. Gotu Kola, Centrella asiatica, a small herbaceous plant that grows in wet, marshy, high-altitude areas is another natural substance currently used in skin care products. Its stem cells are useful for firming and restructuring skin, addressing stretch marks, controlling cellulite and supporting blood vessel tone. As a matter of fact, Gotu Kola is used for the treatment of wounds, burns and varicose ulcers in Indian traditional medicine (7).

In the course of his research into healing burns victims, Dr Brown discovered a substance called Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) that is released in the body when there is an injury, and, when applied to burns or wounds, dramatically accelerates the healing process.  He believed the same molecule could be used to regenerate ageing skin and went on to develop ReVive, a skincare range based around it. 2
The core of this debate - similar to debates about abortion, for example - centers on the question, "When does life begin?" Many assert that life begins at conception, when the egg is fertilized. It is often argued that the embryo deserves the same status as any other full grown human. Therefore, destroying it (removing the blastocyst to extract stem cells) is akin to murder. Others, in contrast, have identified different points in gestational development that mark the beginning of life - after the development of certain organs or after a certain time period.

While ten cell therapies have been approved around the world as of January 2016, the only widely used stem cell-based therapy is bone marrow transplantation. Blood-forming stem cells in the bone marrow were the first stem cells to be identified and were the first to be used in the clinic. This life-saving technique has helped thousands people worldwide who had been suffering from blood cancers, such as leukemia.


The process of generating an embryonic stem cell line is somewhat inefficient, so lines are not produced each time cells from the preimplantation-stage embryo are placed into a culture dish. However, if the plated cells survive, divide and multiply enough to crowd the dish, they are removed gently and plated into several fresh culture dishes. The process of re-plating or subculturing the cells is repeated many times and for many months. Each cycle of subculturing the cells is referred to as a passage. Once the cell line is established, the original cells yield millions of embryonic stem cells. Embryonic stem cells that have proliferated in cell culture for six or more months without differentiating, are pluripotent, and appear genetically normal are referred to as an embryonic stem cell line. At any stage in the process, batches of cells can be frozen and shipped to other laboratories for further culture and experimentation.
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