Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and congestive heart failure, has ranked as the number one cause of death in the United States every year since 1900 except 1918, when the nation struggled with an influenza epidemic. Nearly 2,600 Americans die of CVD each day, roughly one person every 34 seconds. Given the aging of the population and the relatively dramatic recent increases in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, CVD will be a significant health concern well into the 21st century.
Alopecia areata is one of a large group of immune system diseases classified as autoimmune disorders. Normally, the immune system protects the body from foreign invaders, such as bacteria and viruses, by recognizing and attacking these invaders and clearing them from the body. In autoimmune disorders, the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues instead. For reasons that are unclear, in alopecia areata the immune system targets hair follicles, stopping hair growth. However, the condition does not permanently damage the follicles, which is why hair may later regrow.
A more complete understanding of the genetic and molecular triggers of these conditions can yield information about how they arise and suggest new strategies to treat them. Predictably controlling cell proliferation and differentiation requires additional basic research on the molecular and genetic signals that regulate cell division and specialization. While recent developments with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)  suggest some of the specific factors that may be involved, techniques must be developed to introduce these factors safely into the cells and control the processes that are induced by these factors.

Isolated 4 years ago from preimplantation embryos by Thomson et al. (1), human embryonic stem (hES) cells have the capacity to differentiate into virtually all of the cell types building our body. These cells therefore hold the promise of forming any desired tissue in culture that could be used to treat a wide variety of conditions where age, disease, or trauma has led to tissue damage or dysfunction. This radical new approach of disease treatment would overcome the problems of donor tissue shortage and, by making the cells immunocompatible with the recipient, implant rejection.

Stem cells may also hold the key to replacing cells lost in many other devastating diseases for which there are currently no sustainable cures. Today, donated tissues and organs are often used to replace damaged tissue, but the need for transplantable tissues and organs far outweighs the available supply. Stem cells, if they can be directed to differentiate into specific cell types, offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat diseases including Parkinson's, stroke, heart disease and diabetes. This prospect is an exciting one, but significant technical hurdles remain that will only be overcome through years of intensive research.
Stem cells have tremendous promise to help us understand and treat a range of diseases, injuries and other health-related conditions. Their potential is evident in the use of blood stem cells to treat diseases of the blood, a therapy that has saved the lives of thousands of children with leukemia; and can be seen in the use of stem cells for tissue grafts to treat diseases or injury to the bone, skin and surface of the eye. Important clinical trials involving stem cells are underway for many other conditions and researchers continue to explore new avenues using stem cells in medicine.
Multicellular organisms (plants, fruits, animals, humans) have stem cells. They are found throughout our bodies, where they can play an essential role in tissue renewal. Stem cells just below the surface of the skin can help with restorative functions, such as cellular regeneration, and may ultimately enhance the capacity to repair aging skin, says Gilbert. The real beauty of stem cells, however, is that they have the amazing ability to develop into many different types of cells. Where skin care is concerned, the theory is that by applying a product that contains stem-cell extracts derived from plants or fruits, you may encourage the growth of your skin’s own stem cells and possibly trigger their anti-aging effects.
Scientists have also found stem cells in the placenta and in the umbilical cord of newborn infants, and they can isolate stem cells from different fetal tissues. Although these cells come from an umbilical cord or a fetus, they more closely resemble adult stem cells than embryonic stem cells because they are tissue-specific. The cord blood cells that some people bank after the birth of a child are a form of adult blood-forming stem cells.
Matching stem cells can be procured from a ‘Public Stem Cell Bank’ where frozen umbilical cord blood stem cells from unrelated donors are available at a cost. The other source of obtaining matching stem cells from a registered voluntary donor listed in a "Bone Marrow Registry’. However, both these sources have their own challenges in finding matching stem cells when required.
Abbreviations: AFP, α foetal protein; ALB, albumin; AT, adipose tissue; BM, bone marrow; CK, cytokeratin; DE, definitive endoderm; EGF, epidermal growth factor; ESC, embryonic stem cell; FD, familial dysautonomia; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; GC, germ cell; GvHD, graft versus host disease; hESC, human ESC; HNF, hepatocyte nuclear factor; HSC, haematopoietic stem cell; IGF1, insulin-like growth factor 1; iPSC, induced pluripotent stem cell; hiPSC, human iPSC; MAPC, multipotent adult progenitor cell; mESC, mouse ESC; MSC, mesenchymal stromal cell; NSC, neural stem cell; OPC, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell; PD, Parkinson's disease; SCF, stem cell factor; SCNT, somatic cell nuclear transfer; SGL, subgranular layer; SMA, spinal muscular atrophy; SVZ, subventricular zone; T1D, Type 1 diabetes; TGF, transforming growth factor; UCB, umbilical cord blood

Besides cancer, several 100,000 people come down with common diseases like dementia, which belongs to the neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac infarction, stroke, arthritis, or diabetes every year. The lifelong therapy causes enormous costs in the health care system. Stem cell therapy offers great potential for the treatment of such diseases. Experts expect that every seventh person up to the age of 70 will need a therapy based on stem cells in the future to regenerate sick or aged cells and tissues.
Intrasplenic administration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) overexpressing opioid growth factor receptor‐like 1 into carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‐induced fibrotic mice increased the number of α‐fetoprotein (AFP)‐positive cells with active bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake and that of proliferating parenchymal hepatocytes following 70% partial resection of the fibrotic liver.
Heterogeneity in the secretome profiles of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) derived from different donors or tissues results in inconsistent stem cell potency. A minimal set of proangiogenic factors consisting of angiogenin, IL‐8, MCP‐1, and vascular endothelial growth factor that are selected from this study is proposed as efficient biomarkers for predicting vascular regenerative efficacy in the treatment of ischemic disease. These biomarkers will be helpful for manufacturing stem cells that are reproducibly effective in the clinic.
Researchers are also trying to grow organs. Given the right signalling molecules and 3D environment, ES cells organize into complex tissues known as organoids, even in a dish. This capacity is important for researchers such as James Wells at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital in Ohio, who is developing intestinal organoids for testing drugs, and perhaps one day for transplant.
3) Be safe. A host of clinics around the world offer supposed stem-cell therapies with claims of complete success, but these treatments must still be considered experimental and potentially risky until much more work is done to ensure their safety. For example, when adult stem cells are provided from a donor, precautions must be taken to avoid rejection by the patient’s immune system. Unless the patient is his or her own donor, or unless a donor is found with an identical tissue type, the patient will need to take powerful drugs to suppress the immune system so the transplanted cells or tissues won’t be rejected. In addition, if adult stem cells are manipulated incorrectly, there is a risk of cancer.

However, majority (>90%) of the conditions would require matching stem cells from a healthy donor for treatment as our stem cells lack the innate capability to resolve the problem. Transplant matching (also known as HLA typing) requires 8-10 parameters to be common between a patient and donor, and hence odds of finding a match is significantly lesser than finding a matching blood unit for transfusion.


Common types include: male-pattern hair loss, female-pattern hair loss, alopecia areata, and a thinning of hair known as telogen effluvium.[3] The cause of male-pattern hair loss is a combination of genetics and male hormones, the cause of female pattern hair loss is unclear, the cause of alopecia areata is autoimmune, and the cause of telogen effluvium is typically a physically or psychologically stressful event.[3] Telogen effluvium is very common following pregnancy.[3]
Today, many expectant mothers are asked about umbilical cord banking -- the process of storing umbilical cord blood after giving birth. Why would someone want to do that? Once a mother gives birth, the umbilical cord and remaining blood are often discarded. However, this blood also contains stem cells from the fetus. Umbilical cord blood can be harvested and the embryonic stem cells grown in culture. Unlike embryonic stem cells from earlier in development, fetal stem cells from umbilical cord blood are multipotent - they can develop into a limited number of cell types.
Alopecia areata is thought to be a systemic autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks its own anagen hair follicles and suppresses or stops hair growth.[9] For example, T cell lymphocytes cluster around affected follicles, causing inflammation and subsequent hair loss. It has been suggested that hair follicle in a normal state are kept secure from the immune system, a phenomenon called immune privilege. A breech in this immune privilege state is considered as the cause of alopecia areata.[12] A few cases of babies being born with congenital alopecia areata have been reported.[13]

Induced pluripotent stem cells are stem cells that are created in the laboratory, a happy medium between adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells.  iPSCs are created through the introduction of embryonic genes into a somatic cell (a skin cell for example) that cause it to revert back to a “stem cell like” state.  These cells, like ESCs are considered pluripotent Discovered in 2007, this method of genetic reprogramming to create embryonic like cells, is novel and needs many more years of research before use in clinical therapies.  
Overview of different stem cell types. Embryonic stem cells, in the middle of the figure, can become three other types of stem cells: ectodermal, endodermal, or mesodermal stem cells. Ectodermal stem cells become skin cells and neurons (brain cells), and endodermal stem cells become lung cells, thyroid cells and cells of the pancreas. The mesodermal stem cells form the mesenchymal stem cells, from which fat cells, bone cells, cartilage cells, and muscle cells will form, and the hematopoietic stem cells, which will form the red blood cells and different types of white blood cells.
ASCs are undifferentiated cells found living within specific differentiated tissues in our bodies that can renew themselves or generate new cells that can replenish dead or damaged tissue.  You may also see the term “somatic stem cell” used to refer to adult stem cells.  The term “somatic” refers to non-reproductive cells in the body (eggs or sperm).  ASCs are typically scarce in native tissues which have rendered them difficult to study and extract for research purposes.
Although alopecia can occur anywhere on the body, it is most distressing when it affects the scalp. Hair loss can range from a small bare patch that is easily masked by hairstyling to a more diffuse and obvious pattern. Alopecia in women has been found to have significantly deleterious effects on self-esteem, psychologic well-being, and body image.1,2
a bilaterally symmetric hair loss on the posterior abdomen, inner thighs, perineum and, less consistently, ventral thorax, flanks and forelegs of cats, most commonly neutered males. The skin is usually normal and nonpruritic. The cause is unknown; sex hormone deficiency was previously believed to be responsible, but abnormal thyroid function is also suspected. Some cases are in reality self-inflicted by excessive grooming or the cat's response to unrecognized pruritus. Called also feline endocrine alopecia.
Adult or somatic stem cells exist throughout the body after embryonic development and are found inside of different types of tissue. These stem cells have been found in tissues such as the brain, bone marrow, blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscles, skin, and the liver. They remain in a quiescent or non-dividing state for years until activated by disease or tissue injury.
Hypotrichosis is a condition of abnormal hair patterns, predominantly loss or reduction. It occurs, most frequently, by the growth of vellus hair in areas of the body that normally produce terminal hair. Typically, the individual's hair growth is normal after birth, but shortly thereafter the hair is shed and replaced with sparse, abnormal hair growth. The new hair is typically fine, short and brittle, and may lack pigmentation. Baldness may be present by the time the subject is 25 years old.[7]
"As I continue to learn about the connection between autoimmune health and overall health and wellness care, I have mobilized to prioritize my own health and wellness in ways I never had. I have completely transformed my eating habits and nutrition, exercise routine and frequency, incorporation of personal passions and activities, among other mindful and interpersonal parts of my life. This is all ironic because people assume I am tragically sick, when in fact I am the healthiest I have been in a long time.
acne age-fighting aging process AHA's anti-aging anti-inflammatory antioxidants barrier function blackheads brightening cleanser cleansing balm cleansing oil collagen cream dehydrated skin Dermalogica DNA damage dry skin exfoliation eye cream free radicals hydration hyperpigmentation inflammation lipids Lira Clinical mask moisturizer oily skin peptides pores redness retinol Revision Skincare salicylic acid sensitive skin serum soothing sunscreen tips toner UV vitamin C wrinkles
Jump up ^ Traverse, Jay H.; Henry, Timothy D.; Pepine, Carl J.; Willerson, James T.; Chugh, Atul; Yang, Phillip C.; Zhao, David X.M.; Ellis, Stephen G.; Forder, John R.; Perin, Emerson C.; Penn, Marc S.; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K.; Chambers, Jeffrey C.; Baran, Kenneth W.; Raveendran, Ganesh; Gee, Adrian P.; Taylor, Doris A.; Moyé, Lem; Ebert, Ray F.; Simari, Robert D. (2 February 2018). "TIME Trial: Effect of Timing of Stem Cell Delivery Following ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction on the Recovery of Global and Regional Left Ventricular FunctionNovelty and Significance". Circulation Research. 122 (3): 479–488. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.117.311466.
Although additional research is needed, iPSCs are already useful tools for drug development and modeling of diseases, and scientists hope to use them in transplantation medicine. Viruses are currently used to introduce the reprogramming factors into adult cells, and this process must be carefully controlled and tested before the technique can lead to useful treatment for humans. In animal studies, the virus used to introduce the stem cell factors sometimes causes cancers. Researchers are currently investigating non-viral delivery strategies. In any case, this breakthrough discovery has created a powerful new way to "de-differentiate" cells whose developmental fates had been previously assumed to be determined. In addition, tissues derived from iPSCs will be a nearly identical match to the cell donor and thus probably avoid rejection by the immune system. The iPSC strategy creates pluripotent stem cells that, together with studies of other types of pluripotent stem cells, will help researchers learn how to reprogram cells to repair damaged tissues in the human body.
What can plant stem cells do for skin? Skin cells grow and die at a surprisingly fast rate, turning over about every month. With constant assaults from free radicals, UV rays, environmental toxins, and debased nutrition, every time our skin cells turn over, they run the risk of damage and mutation. Plus, with age, stem cells become depleted and turnover rate slows down. The result? Visible aging, wrinkles, and less-than lustrous skin. Supplying the skin with a fresh batch of stem cells could potentially allow for the creation of new, younger-looking skin. Could scientists have found the fountain of youth?
Jump up ^ Karanes C, Nelson GO, Chitphakdithai P, Agura E, Ballen KK, Bolan CD, Porter DL, Uberti JP, King RJ, Confer DL (2008). "Twenty years of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for adult recipients facilitated by the National Marrow Donor Program". Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 14 (9 Suppl): 8–15. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.06.006. PMID 18721775.

"When I was coming to terms with my alopecia, the resources I found were directed toward women seeking to be beautiful with hair loss through a wig. While that is an important option and valid for some, I was extremely disheartened. Societal standards of beauty are incredibly off base in many ways, and the significance of hair is one of those ways.


Completely different technology is in use by natural skincare companies, which are using plant stem cells in their products to combat wrinkles, dryness, sun damage and other imperfections. Active plant stem cells contain essential life substances, and in beauty products, they can restructure and renew the epidermis and hair follicles (1). This leads to reduced signs of aging for the user.
Using this mechanism further applications can be put to use in terms of skin aging therapy. Synthetic β-defensin 3 or α-defensin 5 have some advantages over previous growth factors treatments13. Each application will have a known composition as only defensins, and a vehicle is necessary. Since defensins specifically target Lgr6+ cells, there will not be issues of inappropriate activation of other cell types. This approach would also activate a stem cell population that can produce basal stem cells and keratinocytes with less genetic damage and more signaling responsiveness in comparison to the keratinocytes that were derived from aged basal cells. Pilot studies have demonstrated that a composition of defensins, topically applied on intact skin, dramatically improve the overall quality of epidermis and comprehensively address the visible signs of aging skin. The observing effect may be caused by defensin-activated repopulation of epidermis with new and ‘healthy’ basal cells following the increase of epidermal mass. Normalized/refreshed epidermis may enhance the performance of dermis renewal and function.

Egli and Nissim Benvenisty at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem overturned long-held concepts of human biology when they derived ES-cell lines with just half the normal number of chromosomes1. Researchers are now starting to use gene-editing tools on these ‘haploid’ ES cells to understand how genes function in development. Because they have only one set of genes to worry about, the cells could deliver much more straightforward results, Egli says.
The SSEA+ cells demonstrated the ability to form 63 separate and distinct cell types across all three primary germ layer lineages. They proliferated well past 400 population doublings without loss of differentiative capabilities or change in karyotypic expression. While they were absent of MHC Class-I expression, they did express Oct-3/4 and telomerase.

A key aspect of hair loss with age is the aging of the hair follicle.[43] Ordinarily, hair follicle renewal is maintained by the stem cells associated with each follicle. Aging of the hair follicle appears to be primed by a sustained cellular response to the DNA damage that accumulates in renewing stem cells during aging.[44] This damage response involves the proteolysis of type XVII collagen by neutrophil elastase in response to the DNA damage in the hair follicle stem cells. Proteolysis of collagen leads to elimination of the damaged cells and then to terminal hair follicle miniaturization.
Because embryonic stem cells are immature cells that muultiply very rapidly, they often form tumors - a significant hurdle at present for human therapeutic use. Embryonic cells are most often used in research to model “diseases in a dish” to test or identify new drugs for the treatment of disease. The 2006 discovery that adult skin cells could be reprogrammed to behave like pluripotent stem cells largely leapfrogged the use of embryonic cells for clinical development.
People also take issue with the creation of chimeras. A chimera is an organism that has both human and animal cells or tissues. Often in stem cell research, human cells are inserted into animals (like mice or rats) and allowed to develop. This creates the opportunity for researchers to see what happens when stem cells are implanted. Many people, however, object to the creation of an organism that is "part human".
Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic "somatic" or "adult" stem cells.  Scientists discovered ways to derive embryonic stem cells from early mouse embryos nearly 30 years ago, in 1981. The detailed study of the biology of mouse stem cells led to the discovery, in 1998, of a method to derive stem cells from human embryos and grow the cells in the laboratory. These cells are called human embryonic stem cells. The embryos used in these studies were created for reproductive purposes through in vitro fertilization procedures. When they were no longer needed for that purpose, they were donated for research with the informed consent of the donor. In 2006, researchers made another breakthrough by identifying conditions that would allow some specialized adult cells to be "reprogrammed" genetically to assume a stem cell-like state. This new type of stem cell is now known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).
In 2013, studies of autologous bone marrow stem cells on ventricular function were found to contain "hundreds" of discrepancies.[30] Critics report that of 48 reports there seemed to be just five underlying trials, and that in many cases whether they were randomized or merely observational accepter-versus-rejecter, was contradictory between reports of the same trial. One pair of reports of identical baseline characteristics and final results, was presented in two publications as, respectively, a 578 patient randomized trial and as a 391 subject observational study. Other reports required (impossible) negative standard deviations in subsets of people, or contained fractional subjects, negative NYHA classes. Overall there were many more people published as having receiving stem cells in trials, than the number of stem cells processed in the hospital's laboratory during that time. A university investigation, closed in 2012 without reporting, was reopened in July 2013.[31]
Localized or diffuse hair loss may also occur in cicatricial alopecia (lupus erythematosus, lichen plano pilaris, folliculitis decalvans, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia, etc.). Tumours and skin outgrowths also induce localized baldness (sebaceous nevus, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma).
A biopsy is rarely needed to make the diagnosis or aid in the management of alopecia areata. Histologic findings include peribulbar lymphocytic infiltrate ("swarm of bees"). Occasionally, in inactive alopecia areata, no inflammatory infiltrates are found. Other helpful findings include pigment incontinence in the hair bulb and follicular stelae, and a shift in the anagen-to-telogen ratio towards telogen.[citation needed]
"Now, my most obvious symptom is that I lose huge patches of hair all over my head, and my eyebrows. I get regrowth that continues to come and go, so I shave my head. I also have extreme pains all over my body, some similar to charley horses and some similar to feeling very sore and achey. I have major scalp tenderness that can sometimes cause my head to become raw and bleed. I also get sick very easily, very often and have a hard time getting rid of it. I catch pretty much every illness. I also experience chronic fatigue on a daily basis. That’s not including the obvious ways it affects me, as a young woman, emotionally. Or the ways it affects my social, personal, and professional life.
Human embryonic stem cells also represent a new technology for pharmaceutical research and development. Until now, the only cell lines available for this work were either animal or abnormal transformed human cells. Permanent, stable sources for normal human differentiated cells may be developed for drug screening and testing, drug toxicology studies, as well as new drug target identification (92–94). In addition, hES cells may also allow the creation of in vivo models of human disease for drug development as a superior alternative to current mouse models.

 Studies show that aging and damage from UV rays and pollution cause a decrease in stem-cell production. Pincelli and LVMH laboratories in 2008 identified key ingredients with the ability to protect the stem cells from external factors and produced Dior's Capture R60/80 XP  In lab tests, skin samples collected from cosmetic-surgery patients showed more stem cells in the areas where cream had been applied. because it  protects existing stem cells from damage, not because it increased the number of stem cells..  Says Dr. Pincelli 'That power is absolutely vital for epidermal regeneration and for maintaining the skin's youthful appearance'. 4

A number of research groups have reported that certain kinds of adult stem cells can transform, or differentiate, into apparently unrelated cell types (such as brain stem cells that differentiate into blood cells or blood-forming cells that differentiate into cardiac muscle cells). This phenomenon, called transdifferentiation, has been reported in some animals. However, it’s still far from clear how versatile adult stem cells really are, whether transdifferentiation can occur in human cells, or whether it could be made to happen reliably in the lab.

In vitro fertilization generates multiple embryos. The surplus of embryos is not clinically used or is unsuitable for implantation into the patient, and therefore may be donated by the donor with consent. Human embryonic stem cells can be derived from these donated embryos or additionally they can also be extracted from cloned embryos using a cell from a patient and a donated egg.[49] The inner cell mass (cells of interest), from the blastocyst stage of the embryo, is separated from the trophectoderm, the cells that would differentiate into extra-embryonic tissue. Immunosurgery, the process in which antibodies are bound to the trophectoderm and removed by another solution, and mechanical dissection are performed to achieve separation. The resulting inner cell mass cells are plated onto cells that will supply support. The inner cell mass cells attach and expand further to form a human embryonic cell line, which are undifferentiated. These cells are fed daily and are enzymatically or mechanically separated every four to seven days. For differentiation to occur, the human embryonic stem cell line is removed from the supporting cells to form embryoid bodies, is co-cultured with a serum containing necessary signals, or is grafted in a three-dimensional scaffold to result.[50]


Stem cells are either extracted from adult tissue or from a dividing zygote in a culture dish. Once extracted, scientists place the cells in a controlled culture that prohibits them from further specializing or differentiating but usually allows them to divide and replicate. The process of growing large numbers of embryonic stem cells has been easier than growing large numbers of adult stem cells, but progress is being made for both cell types.
So far, researchers have initiated just one human trial using cells derived from iPS cells. Led by ophthalmologist Masayo Takahashi at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, it aims to treat macular degeneration, but was halted in 2014 when investigators decided to simplify the procedure and use donor-derived, rather than patient-derived, stem cells. It restarted in 2017, but hit another roadblock in January, when a membrane developed in the eye of a participant and had to be surgically removed.
While I applaud your description of “What are stem cells?”, you glossed over a category of primitive adult stem cells. Adult individuals contain primitive stem cells with functions very similar to embryonic stem cells. These primitive adult stem cells are found throughout the body residing in connective tissue niches. They are telomerase positive, having essentially unlimited proliferation potential until they lose their telomerase due to subsequent differentiation into organ-specific stem cells and differentiated cell types. These primitive adult stem cells will form all cell types derived from the germ layer lineages: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Additionally, they are programmed with the normal checks and balances to keep them from going rogue, as can occur with iPSCs.
Immunomodulating agents used in the treatment of alopecia areata include corticosteroids, 5 percent minoxidil, and anthralin cream (Psoriatec). Topical immunotherapeutic agents (e.g., dinitrochlorobenzene, squaric acid dibutyl ester, and diphenylcyclopropenone) are also used, although management regimens for these potent agents are challenging. Dermatology consultation or referral may be necessary. All of these agents stimulate hair growth but do not prevent hair loss. Moreover, they probably do not influence the course of the disease.
Other types of stem cells are found at various locations in the body. In particular, we can find populations of stem cells in organs that usually repair themselves very quickly. The cell layers on the inside of the intestines are renewed every few days by stem cells that are present in the intestines. These stem cells divide and the new cells (called daughter cells) form new layers of intestinal cells. The outer layers of the skin are also continuously renewed, and skin stem cells are responsible for this process. Finally, throughout the body we can find so-called mesenchymal stem cellsCell that forms fat cells, bone cells, cartilage cells, and muscle cells.. These cells form bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. An overview of the different stem cell types is shown in Figure 1.
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"Adult skin heals via an inflammatory response, involving macrophages and type 1 collagen. On the other hand, fetal skin, when it is healing, relies heavily on the skin's stem cells and fibroblasts". One of the most important differences between adult and fetal skin is the fact that fetal skin heals without scarring. A wrinkle is a small wound, For this reason Petrikovsky has been looking at ways we can activate the adult stem cells in the skin to perform in similar ways to those in fetal skin. One substance he has found that can upregulate the stem cell activity of adult skin is Peptide 199, an amino acid chain derived from the Wharton Jelly, a gelatinous substance found in the umbilical cord. This upregulation ensures the fibroblast dominance over the inflammatory process during skin repair, mimicking the process that occurs in fetal skin, healing without a scar or wrinkle.5


Therapies using iPSCs are exciting because somatic cells of the recipient can be reprogrammed to en “ESC like” state.  Then mechanisms to differentiate these cells may be applied to generate the cells in need.  This is appealing to clinicians because this avoids the issue of histocompatibility and lifelong immunosuppression, which is needed if transplants use donor stem cells. 

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells that have high proliferative capacity in culture and can be expanded through far more passages compared to adult stem cells without reaching senescence. The cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and can be differentiated towards numerous somatic cells with varying phenotypes. The use of embryonic stem cells in research has been fraught with controversy and is subject to political policies that can limit access to their use. Unfortunately, this vulnerability to ethical and political pressures hinders research using embryonic stem cells, as they are subject to the political environment of changing government administrations.
The phenomenon of callus creation from differentiated adult plant cells was described for the first time in 1902 by the Austrian botanist, Gottlieb Haberlandt [5]. He suggested that the individual plant cell is able to regenerate the entire plant. This itself was demonstrated in 1958 by cloning a carrot from in vitro cultivated carrot cells [6]. Since then, many articles have been published dedicated to regeneration of the entire plant from the cultivated cells and/or tissues. The callus creation process is one stage of somatic embryogenesis (i.e., formation of a zygote without fertilization) and the plant cells are subjected to dedifferentiation to again become stem cells capable of producing a new tissue or even an entire organ. The WUS protein is responsible for turning somatic cells back into stem cells. Research shows that cytokines are responsible for the production of stems from a callus, while auxins are responsible for the production of roots [6]. There is evidence that shows plant auxins have a regulatory effect on telomere length [7].
However, when extracting embryonic stem cells, the blastocyst stage signals when to isolate stem cells by placing the "inner cell mass" of the blastocyst into a culture dish containing a nutrient-rich broth. Lacking the necessary stimulation to differentiate, they begin to divide and replicate while maintaining their ability to become any cell type in the human body. Eventually, these undifferentiated cells can be stimulated to create specialized cells.
Stem cell research has the potential to have a significant impact on human health. However, there is some controversy around the development, usage, and destruction of human embryos. Scientists may be able to ease these concerns by using a new method that can turn adult stem cells into pluripotent stem cells, which can change into any cell type. This would eliminate the need for embryonic stem cells in research. Such breakthroughs show that much progress has been made in stem cell research. Despite these advancements, there’s still a lot more to be done before scientists can create successful treatments through stem cell therapy.
Although alopecia can occur anywhere on the body, it is most distressing when it affects the scalp. Hair loss can range from a small bare patch that is easily masked by hairstyling to a more diffuse and obvious pattern. Alopecia in women has been found to have significantly deleterious effects on self-esteem, psychologic well-being, and body image.1,2
This study showed that sex‐determining region Y‐box 2 (SOX2) activation using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/deactivated CRISPR‐associated protein 9 (dCas9) system promoted wound healing in corneal endothelial cells, covering the inner surface of the cornea and restoring its function and the shape, thereby reducing corneal edema and making it transparent. SOX2 activation using the CRISPR/dCas9 system may thus be useful for the treatment of human corneal endothelial cell diseases.
Human and Mouse ES cells have some different properties. Scientists are trying to understand why this is and whether human cells can be obtained with the same properties as the mouse ES cells. Researchers are also working to expand and perfect methods for making particular adult cell types from ES cells in the lab. Controlling exactly how ES cells differentiate is still a major challenge. Even so, some scientists are already investigating whether ES cells can be used to make adult cells that could be transplanted into patients to help heal injured or diseased tissue.
A possible solution to this problem lies in xenografts (i.e., transplantation of tissues of animal origin); however, for several reasons (ethical, immunological, infectious diseases), this approach has a limited usefulness. A way out of this problem would be the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into specific cell types and tissues. In fact, recent developments in the field of stem cell biology and, in particular, of human ES cells have generated hope that this lack of suitable cells can be overcome.
A new approach to aid in skin aging could be the use of defensins to activate Lgr6+ stem cells (Table 1). Unlike past treatments, defensins would only target Lgr6+ cells, as opposed to many potential targets that may be helpful but also may be deleterious or even tumorigenic in skin tissue (Figure 5B); the authors were not able to find any publications with respect of involvement of defensins in cancer-related pathways. Moreover, some tissues respond to tumor growth by enhanced expression of defensins as a natural protective immune response25. Studies also show the ability of defensins to suppress tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo26-29.  In addition, Lgr6+ cells are quiescent compared to basal stem cells and reside in the isthmus, which is not as directly exposed to UV radiation. Therefore, Lgr6+ cells would have accumulated fewer mutations and damage than basal stem cells. Thus, by activating these cells, there would be differentiation and proliferation of less damaged keratinocytes.
Alopecia areata is not contagious.[9] It occurs more frequently in people who have affected family members, suggesting heredity may be a factor.[9] Strong evidence of genetic association with increased risk for alopecia areata was found by studying families with two or more affected members. This study identified at least four regions in the genome that are likely to contain these genes.[14] In addition, alopecia areata shares genetic risk factors with other autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and celiac disease.[3] It may be the only manifestation of celiac disease.[15][16]
The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka’s lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in 2006 that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells.[57] He was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize along with Sir John Gurdon "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent." [58]
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