This drug is a weak competitive inhibitor of androgen binding to androgen receptors. It also decreases the synthesis of testosterone. For these reasons, orally administered spironolactone has been tried in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, although questions remain about its usefulness. Spironolactone can be beneficial in women who also have hirsuitism.13 However, the FDA has not labeled this drug for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.


His wide-ranging research established him as a leader in embryonic stem-cell biology, a field challenged by restricted funding and an enthusiasm for competing technologies that don’t carry the same ethical baggage. Still, many say that human embryonic stem cells are now more relevant than ever. “I am very excited about embryonic stem cells,” says Egli. “They will lead to unprecedented discoveries that will transform life. I have no doubt about it.”

There is no cure for the condition.[2] Efforts may be used to try to speed hair regrowth such as cortisone injections.[1][2] Sunscreen, head coverings to protect from cold and sun, and glasses if the eyelashes are missing is recommended.[2] In some cases the hair regrows and the condition does not reoccur.[2] In others hair loss and regrowth occurs over years.[2] Among those in whom all body hair is lost less than 10% recover.[5]
In a six-week pilot study, it was observed that there was a global improvement in wrinkle reduction and decreased skin oil production in the 22 subjects that used synthetic α-defensin 5 and β-defensin 3 based skin care regimen30. To affirm these findings, a placebo-controlled, double-blind study across multiple medical centers was carried out with 45 subjects for 12 weeks. The results of this study followed those from the pilot, suggesting some potential for the use of defensins as a skin therapy31. Though further investigation must be undertaken to fully understand the mechanisms behind defensins and skin repair, this therapy provides a new avenue for a more targeted treatment in skin aging.
Prana Active Vitamin Lift Serum ($75 in the shop). Although Prana’s serum has apple stem cell, this ingredient du jour should not blind us to the other cutting-edge ingredients here. One in particular is homeostatine, an active combination of two natural ingredients (from enteromorpha compressa, an algae, and gum from a South American tree called caesalpinia spinosa) that is supposed to prevent and decrease wrinkles by restoring the balance of the extra-cellular matrix. It’s rather impressive and still fairly rare in cosmetics, so check it out.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell–like state by being forced to express genes and factors important for maintaining the defining properties of embryonic stem cells. Although these cells meet the defining criteria for pluripotent stem cells, it is not known if iPSCs and embryonic stem cells differ in clinically significant ways. Mouse iPSCs were first reported in 2006, and human iPSCs were first reported in late 2007. Mouse iPSCs demonstrate important characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, including expressing stem cell markers, forming tumors containing cells from all three germ layers, and being able to contribute to many different tissues when injected into mouse embryos at a very early stage in development. Human iPSCs also express stem cell markers and are capable of generating cells characteristic of all three germ layers.
Reports on the isolation of human pluripotent stem cells will no doubt catch the public eye, and there will be expressions of concern, rekindling the debate on human embryo research. The debate will encompass the source of the cells, human cloning potential, and the possibilities of germ line modifications. Four years ago, the Human Embryo Research Panel's report to the director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) concluded that research deriving ES cells is acceptable as long as embryos are not created expressly for research purposes. Several issues will have to be resolved to permit the appropriate exploitation of the uniqueness and potential of these cells. Currently, as broadly written, U.S. federal law bans the use of federal funds for the derivation of these cells [Public Law 105–78, Section 513(a)]. To date, research in this area has been sponsored through private and corporate funding, with hospital and academic institutional internal review board approval and informed patient consent. It is not clear whether NIH funding necessary to realize the biomedical potential of the cells will be available to support studies using the derived ES cells. Federal legislation and funding policies should be reexamined in light of the biomedical potential of human ES cells, now made more imminent by the Thomson et al. report. Federal guidelines must be established so that ES cell research can be funded after appropriate peer review and oversight.
Plants have a complex phytohormone cascade that regulates plant growth and regeneration. There is yet much to understand as to how phytohormones control the regeneration process and if this can be extrapolated to regeneration in human tissues. The active ingredients in the phytohormone cascade that have actions on human stem cells and human tissues are areas of interest and focus for the future of plant stem cell research [22]. It could be considered that: ‘an apple a day can keep aging skin away and perhaps help regenerate skin’. The authors’ goal in writing this article was to promote additional research on plant stem cell biotechnology and its effect on human skin and improve current cosmetics with safer and effective organic ingredients. Ancient herbal sciences such as Ayurveda and Oriental Chinese Medicine have used plants as their mainstay for the treatment of chronic ailments, acute inflammation and for healing. In current times, for innovative cosmetic scientists, the goal is to connect the evidence from ancient practices to evidence in modern science and see where the application of plants in cosmetics can improve the delivery to the skin in a more effective, safer and targeted way. Plant science in this vein is currently in its infancy and research in herbal biotechnology and physiologic effects on the skin could open new doors in cosmetics. An interesting aspect for future research will be the discovery of actives of phytohormones that act directly or influence repair pathways for human tissues. It is possible in the future to combine and expand our understanding of the basis of Ayurvedic and ancient medicine with its use of plant herbs to shed more light on cutting-edge scientific research.
Reports on the isolation of human pluripotent stem cells will no doubt catch the public eye, and there will be expressions of concern, rekindling the debate on human embryo research. The debate will encompass the source of the cells, human cloning potential, and the possibilities of germ line modifications. Four years ago, the Human Embryo Research Panel's report to the director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) concluded that research deriving ES cells is acceptable as long as embryos are not created expressly for research purposes. Several issues will have to be resolved to permit the appropriate exploitation of the uniqueness and potential of these cells. Currently, as broadly written, U.S. federal law bans the use of federal funds for the derivation of these cells [Public Law 105–78, Section 513(a)]. To date, research in this area has been sponsored through private and corporate funding, with hospital and academic institutional internal review board approval and informed patient consent. It is not clear whether NIH funding necessary to realize the biomedical potential of the cells will be available to support studies using the derived ES cells. Federal legislation and funding policies should be reexamined in light of the biomedical potential of human ES cells, now made more imminent by the Thomson et al. report. Federal guidelines must be established so that ES cell research can be funded after appropriate peer review and oversight.
Stem cells generated through SCNT or iPS cell technology, on the other hand, are a perfect genetic match. The immune system would likely overlook that transplanted cells, seeing it as a normal part of the body. Still, some suggest that even if the cells are perfectly matched, they may not entirely escape the notice of the immune system. Cancer cells, for example, have the same genetic make up as surrounding tissue and yet the immune system will often identify and destroy early tumors. Until more information is available from animal studies it will be hard to know whether transplanted patient-specific cells are likely to call the attention of the immune system.
Given their unique regenerative abilities, stem cells offer new potentials for treating diseases such as diabetes, and heart disease. However, much work remains to be done in the laboratory and the clinic to understand how to use these cells for cell-based therapies to treat disease, which is also referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine.
Heterogeneity in the secretome profiles of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) derived from different donors or tissues results in inconsistent stem cell potency. A minimal set of proangiogenic factors consisting of angiogenin, IL‐8, MCP‐1, and vascular endothelial growth factor that are selected from this study is proposed as efficient biomarkers for predicting vascular regenerative efficacy in the treatment of ischemic disease. These biomarkers will be helpful for manufacturing stem cells that are reproducibly effective in the clinic.
Although oral corticosteroid therapy is effective in the treatment of alopecia areata, it is seldom used because of potential adverse effects. Systemic treatment may be indicated in women with progressive alopecia areata. For active, extensive, or rapidly spreading alopecia areata, the recommended treatment in adults weighing more than 60 kg (132 lb) is prednisone in a dosage of 40 mg per day for seven days; the corticosteroid is then tapered slowly by 5 mg every few days for six weeks.8 For less extensive alopecia areata, prednisone is given in a dosage of 20 mg per day or every other day, followed by slow tapering in increments of 1 mg once the condition is stable. Oral prednisone therapy can be used in combination with topical or injected corticosteroid therapy, as well as with topical minoxidil therapy.
Embryonic stem cells are grown in the laboratory using a procedure called cell culture. The human embryonic stem cells are first isolated by removing the inner cell mass into a plastic laboratory culture dish that contains a nutrient medium or broth called the culture medium. Kept at suitable temperature and humidity the cells divide and spread over the surface of the dish.
Different plant stem cells have different effects. For instance, stem cells extracted from grape seeds have shown high anti-tumor-promoting activity. “Products containing these stem cells can potentiate the photoprotective qualities of sunscreens,” says Au. Verbascoside, found in lilac stem cell extract, helps with wound healing. “It also has strong anti-inflammatory properties and repairs DNA oxidative damage,” she says. “Like grape seed extract, it protects the skin against UVA and UVB damage.”
The mission of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases is to support research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases.
a bilaterally symmetric hair loss on the posterior abdomen, inner thighs, perineum and, less consistently, ventral thorax, flanks and forelegs of cats, most commonly neutered males. The skin is usually normal and nonpruritic. The cause is unknown; sex hormone deficiency was previously believed to be responsible, but abnormal thyroid function is also suspected. Some cases are in reality self-inflicted by excessive grooming or the cat's response to unrecognized pruritus. Called also feline endocrine alopecia.
Based in Zurich, Switzerland, our company was the first luxury travel agency to combine a digital experience with individually personalised support. We provide luxury holiday planning with online booking and tailored 5 star services. We help you select the best boarding school for your child on a data driven basis combined with personal consultations. We find top-notch medical treatments and connect you with the best clinics and doctors.

Total immunocompatibility of tissue engineered from human ES cells (56–58) could be theoretically obtained by somatic nuclear transfer (also defined as therapeutical cloning). This procedure uses the transfer of a somatic cell nucleus from an individual into an enucleated oocyte (59,60). Such an oocyte would then undergo embryonic development to the blastocyst stage prior to isolation from the inner cell mass of hES cells that would be genetically matched to the tissues of the nucleus donor. So far, one group has claimed the nuclear transfer derivation of a human embryo up to only a six-cell stage (61,62), but the success of this result is still questioned. Clearly, this procedure of somatic nuclear transfer is still highly problematic from an ethical and practical point of view.
A somewhat more controlled method to differentiate ES cells is to co-culture them with differentiated cells that induce their differentiation to specific lineages. For example, MS5, S2, and PA6 stromal cells have been used to derive dopamine neurons from human ES cells (Perrier et al., 2004; Zeng et al., 2004); bone marrow stromal cell lines S17 and OP9 support efficient hematopoietic differentiation (Kaufman et al., 2001; Vodyanik et al., 2005). The inducing activity provided by such stromal cells, while efficient in directing ES cell differentiation, contains many unknown factors, and such activity can change both between and within cell lines as a function of culture conditions.

Scientists are discovering that many tissues and organs contain a small number of adult stem cells that help maintain them. Adult stem cells have been found in the brain, bone marrow, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, and other (although not all) organs and tissues. They are thought to live in a specific area of each tissue, where they may remain dormant for years, dividing and creating new cells only when they are activated by tissue injury, disease or anything else that makes the body need more cells.
Stem cell technology is a fascinating and complex area of medical research. Not surprisingly, the potential health breakthroughs of stem cells have been adopted by the cosmetics industry and used to promote stem cell creams and stem cell serums for anti-aging. How can they make such claims? Cosmetics that contain plant stem cells don’t have the burden of proof requirements that medical research has before a product can be released to the public.
Many scientists think that testing pollutants and potential drugs on cells grown from human embryonic stem cells could be more accurate than current tests. This could mean that fewer animals would be killed for research and also make research faster and cheaper. However, if such experiments are to work, scientists will have to develop techniques to make sure that the cells and culture conditions remain constant; otherwise, differences between experiments could be due to factors other than the drug candidates being tested.

These possess the capacity to divide for long periods and retain their ability to make all cell types within the organism. The best known type of pluripotent stem cell is the one present in embryos that helps babies grow within the womb. These are termed embryonic stem cells. These cells form at the blastocyst stage of development. A blastocyst is a hollow ball of cells that is smaller than a pinhead. The embryonic stem cells lie within this ball of cells. Recent research has enabled scientists to derive pluripotent cells from adult human skin cells. These are termed induced pluripotent stem cells or iPS cells.
In the past 20 years, significant new discoveries have emerged — breakthroughs that the original discoverers of stem cells never dreamed about. Researchers are finding new ways to use stem cells to rebuild tissue in many parts of the body where it has been damaged, such as the eye, the pancreas and the brain. Some revolutionary treatments for blindness, MS, stroke and spinal cord injury are already in early stage clinical trials.
Putative model depicting how miR‐205 depletion may affect mammary gland development and stem cell self‐renewal during mammary reconstitution. The schematic representation of miR‐205 regulatory network: (A) miR‐205 is regulated by p63 and inhibits gene targets including Amot, Nkd1 and Ppp2r4, the negative regulators of YAP and Wnt pathway to potentially promote stem cell self‐renewal. (B) In the case of miR‐205 deletion, AMOT, NKD1 and PTPA expression is no longer repressed, leading to inhibition of YAP and the Wnt pathway, which affects stem cell self‐renewal and mammary gland morphogenesis.
Because of the general positive healing capabilities of stem cells, they have gained interest for the treatment of cutaneous wounds. This is important interest for those with reduced healing capabilities, like diabetics and those undergoing chemotherapy. In one trial, stem cells were isolated from the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord. These cells were injected directly into the wounds. Within a week, full re-epithelialization of the wounds had occurred, compared to minor re-epithelialization in the control wounds. This showed the capabilities of mesenchymal stem cells in the repair of epidermal tissues.[88]
Human stem cells could also be used to test new drugs. For example, new medications could be tested for safety on differentiated cells generated from human pluripotent cell lines. Other kinds of cell lines are already used in this way. Cancer cell lines, for example, are used to screen potential anti-tumor drugs. But, the availability of pluripotent stem cells would allow drug testing in a wider range of cell types. However, to screen drugs effectively, the conditions must be identical when comparing different drugs. Therefore, scientists will have to be able to precisely control the differentiation of stem cells into the specific cell type on which drugs will be tested. Current knowledge of the signals controlling differentiation fall well short of being able to mimic these conditions precisely to consistently have identical differentiated cells for each drug being tested.

The most common pattern is one or more well-defined spots of hair loss on the scalp. If alopecia occurs in an ophiasis pattern (hair loss involving the temporal and posterior scalp) or if large areas of the scalp are involved for long periods of time, the prognosis is worse. A more generalized form of hair loss is referred to as diffuse alopecia areata where there is widespread dramatic thinning of the scalp hair. Occasionally, all of the scalp hair is entirely lost, a condition referred to as alopecia totalis. Less frequently, the loss of all of the hairs on the entire body, called alopecia universalis, occurs.


Hair loss often follows childbirth in the postpartum period without causing baldness. In this situation, the hair is actually thicker during pregnancy owing to increased circulating oestrogens. Approximately three months after giving birth (typically between 2 and 5 months), oestrogen levels drop and hair loss occurs, often particularly noticeably around the hairline and temple area. Hair typically grows back normally and treatment is not indicated.[21][22]A similar situation occurs in women taking the fertility-stimulating drug clomiphene.
Stem cells are unique cells: They have the ability to become many different types of cells, and they can replicate rapidly. Stem cells play a huge part in the body’s healing process, and the introduction of new stem cells has always showed great promise in the treatment of many conditions. It wasn’t until we found out where and how to isolate these cells that we started using them for transplants. Although a person’s own stem cells are always 100 percent compatible, there are risks in using someone else’s stem cells, especially if the donor and recipient are not immediately related. The discovery of certain markers allows us to see how compatible a donor’s and host’s cells will be. The relatively recent discovery of stem cells in the umbilical cord's blood has proven advantageous over acquiring stem cells from other sources. Researchers are currently conducting clinical trials with stem cells, adding to the growing list of 80 diseases which they can treat.
In November 2011 Geron announced it was halting the trial and dropping out of stem cell research for financial reasons, but would continue to monitor existing patients, and was attempting to find a partner that could continue their research.[31] In 2013 BioTime (AMEX: BTX), led by CEO Dr. Michael D. West, acquired all of Geron's stem cell assets, with the stated intention of restarting Geron's embryonic stem cell-based clinical trial for spinal cord injury research.[32]
Hair loss occurs because the hair follicles in a discreet area all enter the telogen or late catagen stage of hair growth. In the catagen stage the hair follicle stops growing and in the telogen stage it falls out. Normally, hairs are going through these stages at random and the growing hairs on the rest of the head outnumber the hairs that fall out.
The goal is to have stem cell lines derived from embryonic stem cells. Cells from these lines are "totipotential" because in theory, they can be transformed into any kind of tissue by the appropriate biological and chemical manipulations. Without going into detail and elaborating on all the limitations and caveats, embryonic stem cell lines can be created three ways.
Embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos. They are specifically obtained from eggs that have been fertilized in vitro for an infertile couple in an in-vitro fertilization clinic. These are excess fertilized eggs that are donated for research with informed consent of the donors. These embryos are not eggs that have been fertilized within a woman’s body.
Other possibilities include means of reducing or abolishing cell immunogenicity. ES cells, unlike adult cells, can be easily modified genetically by, for example, inserting immunosuppressive molecules such as Fas ligand, or removing immunoactive proteins such as B7 antigens (53). Alternatively, one could delete the foreign MHC genes or insert genes coding for the recipient's MHC (54).
Diphencyprone (DPCP): This medicine is applied to the bald skin. It causes a small allergic reaction. When the reaction occurs, a patient has redness, swelling, and itching. Dermatologists believe this allergic reaction tricks the immune system, causing it to send white blood cells to the surface of the scalp. This fights the inflammation. It also prevents the hair follicles from going to sleep, and causing the hair loss.
People also take issue with the creation of chimeras. A chimera is an organism that has both human and animal cells or tissues. Often in stem cell research, human cells are inserted into animals (like mice or rats) and allowed to develop. This creates the opportunity for researchers to see what happens when stem cells are implanted. Many people, however, object to the creation of an organism that is "part human".
There is still a lot to learn about stem cells, however, and their current applications as treatments are sometimes exaggerated by the media and other parties who do not fully understand the science and current limitations, and also by “clinics” looking to capitalize on the hype by selling treatments to chronically ill or seriously injured patients. The information on this page is intended to help you understand both the potential and the limitations of stem cells at this point in time, and to help you spot some of the misinformation that is widely circulated by clinics offering unproven treatments.
There are currently several limitations to using traditional adult stem cells. Although many different kinds of multipotent stem cells have been identified, adult stem cells that could give rise to all cell and tissue types have not yet been found. Adult stem cells are often present in only minute quantities and can therefore be difficult to isolate and purify. There is also evidence that they may not have the same capacity to multiply as embryonic stem cells do. Finally, adult stem cells may contain more DNA abnormalities—caused by sunlight, toxins, and errors in making more DNA copies during the course of a lifetime. These potential weaknesses might limit the usefulness of adult stem cells.
In the United States, federal policy regarding stem cell research has evolved over time as different presidents have taken office. It’s important to note that no federal regulation has ever explicitly banned stem cell research in the United States. Rather, regulations have placed restrictions on public funding and use. However, certain states have placed bans on the creation or destruction of human embryos for medical research.
However, as a first indication that the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) cell technology can in rapid succession lead to new cures, it was used by a research team headed by Rudolf Jaenisch of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to cure mice of sickle cell anemia, as reported by Science journal's online edition on December 6, 2007.[61][62]

Examples of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell clones, which are propagated in an undifferentiated state by culturing them over mitomycin-inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder cells and in the presence of the cytokine LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor) (panel a). Some cell lines are feeder cell-independent such as the CGR8 line (49) (panel b). Every 2 days, cells are dissociated by trypsinization. Undifferentiated ES cells can be expanded in the presence of LIF, or their differentiation can be initiated by removing LIF and by forming three-dimensional structures called embryoid bodies (EB) containing the three embryonic derivatives


If an inner cell mass is taken from a mouse blastocyst and given the right nutrients, the pluripotent cells can grow in the laboratory. The process of cell maturation and specialization that would normally take place in the embryo stops. Instead, the cells multiply to make more undifferentiated cells that resemble the cells of the inner cell mass. These laboratory-grown cells are called embryonic stem (ES) cells.
Embryonic stem cells are grown in the laboratory using a procedure called cell culture. The human embryonic stem cells are first isolated by removing the inner cell mass into a plastic laboratory culture dish that contains a nutrient medium or broth called the culture medium. Kept at suitable temperature and humidity the cells divide and spread over the surface of the dish.
We use cookies and similar technologies to improve your browsing experience, personalize content and offers, show targeted ads, analyze traffic, and better understand you. We may share your information with third-party partners for marketing purposes. To learn more and make choices about data use, visit our Advertising Policy and Privacy Policy. By clicking “Accept and Continue” below, (1) you consent to these activities unless and until you withdraw your consent using our rights request form, and (2) you consent to allow your data to be transferred, processed, and stored in the United States.
Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic "somatic" or "adult" stem cells. The functions and characteristics of these cells will be explained in this document. Scientists discovered ways to derive embryonic stem cells from early mouse embryos more than 30 years ago, in 1981. The detailed study of the biology of mouse stem cells led to the discovery, in 1998, of a method to derive stem cells from human embryos and grow the cells in the laboratory. These cells are called human embryonic stem cells. The embryos used in these studies were created for reproductive purposes through in vitro fertilization procedures. When they were no longer needed for that purpose, they were donated for research with the informed consent of the donor. In 2006, researchers made another breakthrough by identifying conditions that would allow some specialized adult cells to be "reprogrammed" genetically to assume a stem cell-like state. This new type of stem cell, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), will be discussed in a later section of this document.
Stem cells may also hold the key to replacing cells lost in many other devastating diseases for which there are currently no sustainable cures. Today, donated tissues and organs are often used to replace damaged tissue, but the need for transplantable tissues and organs far outweighs the available supply. Stem cells, if they can be directed to differentiate into specific cell types, offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat diseases including Parkinson's, stroke, heart disease and diabetes. This prospect is an exciting one, but significant technical hurdles remain that will only be overcome through years of intensive research.
Jump up ^ Centeno CJ, Schultz JR, Cheever M, Robinson B, Freeman M, Marasco W (March 2010). "Safety and complications reporting on the re-implantation of culture-expanded mesenchymal stem cells using autologous platelet lysate technique". Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 5 (1): 81–93. doi:10.2174/157488810790442796. PMID 19951252. Archived from the original on 2012-08-02.

Stem cells are being studied for a number of reasons. The molecules and exosomes released from stem cells are also being studied in an effort to make medications.[10] The paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome, has been found to be the predominant mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative, auto-immune and inflammatory diseases.[11]
Skin aging is a complex process which involves all the layers of the epidermis and dermis. In order to slow skin aging, methods are researched which would strengthen and protect skin stem cells. Science is in search of the right method to stimulate the proliferation of epidermal stem cells. Plant stem cells show outstanding anti-aging properties, as they can, among other activities, stimulate fibroblasts to synthesise collagen, which, in turn, stimulates skin regeneration. One of the most important agents which give anti-aging properties to plant stem cell extracts is kinetin (6-furfuryladenine). This compound belongs to a cytokine group and is considered to be a strong antioxidant which protects protein and nucleic acids from oxidation and glycoxidation processes. It enables cells to remove the excess of free radicals to protect them from oxidative stress.
I am disappointed that most stem cell biologists that you know do not believe that adult mammals, humans included, have primitive stem cells. Of course, if it were more common knowledge, then iPSCs would be a moot point. However, my hypothesis is relatively easy to test. Just stain cryosectioned normal healthy adult tissue with antibodies to SSEA (stage-specific embryonic antigen) and CEA-CAM (carcinoembryonic antigen-cell adhesion molecule). We found SSEA+ cells and CEA-CAM+ cells in 11 species of healthy adult mammals, including humans.
Let's get some things straight right off the bat: Alopecia is not a sign of cancer or that someone is going through chemotherapy. Not everyone who has alopecia loses all their hair. And, of course, it's not something anyone needs to be ashamed of. Unfortunately, far too many people with alopecia have been subject to misinformation and harmful assumptions, leaving them feeling insecure. So let's get to the facts.
Embryonic stem cells are totipotent cells as they can differentiate to any type of cell in the body. Ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial, and smooth muscle cells helps in repair of the damaged myocardium. In animal models, the cardiomyocytes derived from the embryonic stem cells help improve myocardial function [20]. In a mouse model, human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have been shown to improve overall heart function at 4 weeks postmyocardial infarction, but no significant improvement was seen at 12 weeks after myocardial infarction.

And by the way, the melanin pigment is formed by melanocytes, which are derivatives of neural crest, which are derived from neural ectoderm, which is derived from ectoderm. Skin cells, such as epidermis, hair, nails, are derived from surface ectoderm, which is derived from ectoderm. So in essence, the cells forming melanin (melanocytes) and skin cells come from the same early embryonic tissue (ectoderm), they just branch off from each other (neural ectoderm and surface ectoderm) earlier than you intimated in your description.
Yury Verlinsky, a Russian-American medical researcher who specialized in embryo and cellular genetics (genetic cytology), developed prenatal diagnosis testing methods to determine genetic and chromosomal disorders a month and a half earlier than standard amniocentesis. The techniques are now used by many pregnant women and prospective parents, especially couples who have a history of genetic abnormalities or where the woman is over the age of 35 (when the risk of genetically related disorders is higher). In addition, by allowing parents to select an embryo without genetic disorders, they have the potential of saving the lives of siblings that already had similar disorders and diseases using cells from the disease free offspring.[19]
×