Jump up ^ Yu, J; Vodyanik, M. A.; Smuga-Otto, K; Antosiewicz-Bourget, J; Frane, J. L.; Tian, S; Nie, J; Jonsdottir, G. A.; Ruotti, V; Stewart, R; Slukvin, I. I.; Thomson, J. A. (2007). "Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells". Science. 318 (5858): 1917–20. Bibcode:2007Sci...318.1917Y. doi:10.1126/science.1151526. PMID 18029452.
Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is a disfiguring disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae bacteria. The disease is spread from person to person through nasal secretions or droplets. Symptoms and signs of leprosy include numbness, loss of temperature sensation, painless ulcers, eye damage, loss of digits, and facial disfigurement. Leprosy is treated with antibiotics and the dosage and length of time of administration depends upon which form of leprosy the patient has.

While there is no cure for alopecia areata, treatment can control the disease in some children. Many have their hair back within a year, although regrowth is unpredictable and many will lose hair again. For about 5% of children the disease progresses to alopecia totalis -- loss of all of the hair on the scalp. Some of these will develop alopecia universalis -- a total loss of body hair.

Resident in most tissues of the human body, discrete populations of ASCs generate cells to replace those that are lost through normal repair, disease, or injury. ASCs are found throughout ones lifetime in tissues such as the umbilical cord, placenta, bone marrow, muscle, brain, fat tissue, skin, gut, etc.   The first ASCs were extracted and used for blood production in 1948.  This procedure was expanded in 1968 when the first adult bone marrow cells were used in clinical therapies for blood disease. 
Stem cell research has many different implications. One is in the realm of education. Stem cells have only recently been isolated and used in experimentation so there still exist many aspects of stem cell characteristics and specializations that scientists are trying to understand. Further individualized experimentation with the two stem cell types and comparisons between the two can only improve our understanding of development, proliferation, and differentiation. Another application of stem cells is in medicine. According to NIH, scientists may eventually find ways of controlling stem cell differentiation, including growing cells and tissues for such purposes as cell-based therapies. Scientists are currently growing adult stem cells in the hopes of treating injuries or diseases such as Parkinsons. In this case, the difference between embryonic and adult stem cells is not only their ability to become different cell types, but also the ease with which they are grown (especially since stem cell replacement therapies require large numbers of cells): embryonic stem cells are grown relatively easily to large numbers, whereas adult stem cells are rare to isolate and difficult to culture. The advantage of adult stem cells is that they will not be rejected by the immune system if the patient’s own adult stem cells are used. In addition to cell therapies, human stem cells can potentially be used in drug testing. While scientific research involving human embryonic stem cells may lead to the advancement of science and medicine, it is enshrouded in ethical debates concerning their use. Questions involving the embryo, rights, property, and religion advance with developments in the field.
The symptoms: Women with this trait tend to develop thinning at the hairline behind the bangs, says Pamela Jakubowicz, MD, a dermatologist at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City. The condition develops slowly and may start as early as your 20s. You may be vulnerable if your mother also has this pattern of thinning. In some cases, the hair loss may be diffuse, meaning it's spread across the entire scalp.
Finasteride (Propecia): This medication is FDA approved for use in only men with androgenic hair loss. Finasteride is in a class of medications called 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. It is thought to help reduce hair loss by blocking the action of natural hormones in scalp hair follicles. Propecia is a lower-dose version of a commercially available drug called Proscar that helps shrink enlarged prostates in middle-aged and older men. Women of child-bearing potential should avoid finasteride. Propecia 1 mg tablets are available by prescription and taken once daily. Propecia may grow and thicken hair to some extent for some people, but its main use is to keep (maintain) hair that's still there. Studies have shown that this medication works well in some types of hair loss and must be used for about six to 12 months before full effects are determined. This medication does not "work" in days to weeks, and its onset of visible improvement tends to be gradual. It may be best for men who still have enough hair to retain but also can help some regrow hair. Possible but very unlikely side effects include impotence or a decreased sex drive (libido). Studies have shown that these side effects were possibly slightly more common than seen in the general population and are reversible when the drug is stopped. The cost is about $70-$100/month, which is generally not reimbursed by most health insurers.
Losing some hair every day is completely natural. It's a sign your body's growing new, healthy ones to replace the old. In fact, losing up to 100 hairs per day is normal. You can also kind of get an idea of what's normal for you by just paying attention to what you typically see in your brush or shower drain. "If all of a sudden you're noticing a lot more, or your ponytail is thinner or you're seeing more scalp," then you may be losing more hair than you should, Francesca Fusco, M.D., dermatologist at Wexler Dermatology in NYC and assistant clinical professor of dermatology at Mount Sinai, tells SELF.
People often say that pulling your hair back will cause your hairline to recede, and unlike some "old wives' tales", this one is actually true. If you have long hair and you're tying it at the back (or any other style where the hair is pulled back tightly), you can risk damage to the hair follicles at the hairline. This means that once the hairs are pulled out, the follicles won't produce a new hair strand. You can avoid a receding hairline in this situation by not pulling your hair too tightly, or by wearing your hair in a style where it is naturally falling to the sides, over the forehead or only lightly swept or tied back. Avoiding tightly pulled hair can also reduce oiliness and the pore size around your forehead because your skin will be more relaxed. Also, wearing a ponytail where you use an elastic in the same place day after day, will cause the hair where the elastic is placed to break. It's a good idea never to put your hair in a ponytail when it's still wet.
In most people with alopecia areata, hair falls out in small, round patches, leaving coin-sized areas of bare skin. This patchy hair loss occurs most often on the scalp but can affect other parts of the body as well. Uncommonly, the hair loss involves the entire scalp (in which case the condition is known as alopecia totalis) or the whole body (alopecia universalis). Other rare forms of alopecia areata, which have different patterns of hair loss, have also been reported.
ASCs are undifferentiated cells found living within specific differentiated tissues in our bodies that can renew themselves or generate new cells that can replenish dead or damaged tissue.  You may also see the term “somatic stem cell” used to refer to adult stem cells.  The term “somatic” refers to non-reproductive cells in the body (eggs or sperm).  ASCs are typically scarce in native tissues which have rendered them difficult to study and extract for research purposes.
Hair loss often follows childbirth in the postpartum period without causing baldness. In this situation, the hair is actually thicker during pregnancy owing to increased circulating oestrogens. Approximately three months after giving birth (typically between 2 and 5 months), oestrogen levels drop and hair loss occurs, often particularly noticeably around the hairline and temple area. Hair typically grows back normally and treatment is not indicated.[21][22]A similar situation occurs in women taking the fertility-stimulating drug clomiphene.
^ Jump up to: a b Blumeyer, A; Tosti, A; Messenger, A; Reygagne, P; Del Marmol, V; Spuls, PI; Trakatelli, M; Finner, A; Kiesewetter, F; Trüeb, R; Rzany, B; Blume-Peytavi, U; European Dermatology Forum, (EDF) (October 2011). "Evidence-based (S3) guideline for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women and in men". Journal of the German Society of Dermatology. 9 Suppl 6: S1–57. doi:10.1111/j.1610-0379.2011.07802.x. PMID 21980982.
Putative model depicting how miR‐205 depletion may affect mammary gland development and stem cell self‐renewal during mammary reconstitution. The schematic representation of miR‐205 regulatory network: (A) miR‐205 is regulated by p63 and inhibits gene targets including Amot, Nkd1 and Ppp2r4, the negative regulators of YAP and Wnt pathway to potentially promote stem cell self‐renewal. (B) In the case of miR‐205 deletion, AMOT, NKD1 and PTPA expression is no longer repressed, leading to inhibition of YAP and the Wnt pathway, which affects stem cell self‐renewal and mammary gland morphogenesis.
Losing some hair every day is completely natural. It's a sign your body's growing new, healthy ones to replace the old. In fact, losing up to 100 hairs per day is normal. You can also kind of get an idea of what's normal for you by just paying attention to what you typically see in your brush or shower drain. "If all of a sudden you're noticing a lot more, or your ponytail is thinner or you're seeing more scalp," then you may be losing more hair than you should, Francesca Fusco, M.D., dermatologist at Wexler Dermatology in NYC and assistant clinical professor of dermatology at Mount Sinai, tells SELF.
Once stem cells have been allowed to divide and propagate in a controlled culture, the collection of healthy, dividing, and undifferentiated cells is called a stem cell line. These stem cell lines are subsequently managed and shared among researchers. Once under control, the stem cells can be stimulated to specialize as directed by a researcher - a process known as directed differentiation. Embryonic stem cells are able to differentiate into more cell types than adult stem cells.
An easy way to incorporate a scalp massage into your hair care regimen is to perform it while in the shower, after applying shampoo or conditioner. Scalp massages have been found to improve circulation to the scalp, stimulating hair growth. By moving your fingertips in a slow, circular movement around the whole head, you’ll reduce stress and promote hair regrowth at the same time.
While there is no cure for alopecia areata, treatment can control the disease in some children. Many have their hair back within a year, although regrowth is unpredictable and many will lose hair again. For about 5% of children the disease progresses to alopecia totalis -- loss of all of the hair on the scalp. Some of these will develop alopecia universalis -- a total loss of body hair.
We developed an indisputable method for detecting genuine human OCT4A, which eliminates all falsepositive results. We revisited and confirmed the significant OCT4A expression in many cancer cell lines but scarcely in normal‐tissue‐derived differentiated cells. Moreover, our data provide a conclusive evidence for OCT4 expression concerning the phenotype of human cancer cells.
Does Taking Testosterone Boosting Supplements Cause Baldness? How to Treat Menopause-Related Hair Loss Do Hair Follicles or Hair Cells Die Completely? Medical Reasons for Eyebrow Loss What Causes Hair to Not Grow? How to Regrow Temple Hair How to Regrow Hair on a Receding Hairline Traction Alopecia Treatments The Best Method to Regrow Hair on the Crown The Best DHT Shampoos Can You Replace Body Fat With Muscle? How to Stop Hair Loss and Regrow Hair Naturally Leave-in Conditioner for Dry Scalp Can You Use Both Minoxidil & Saw Palmetto for Hair Loss? Signs of Permanent Loss of Hair How to Restore Damaged Hair Follicles Abnormal Estradiol Levels Amenorrhea Side Effects How to Get Rid of Excess Estrogen in Your Body How to Grow Back Damaged Hair
Alopecia areata is patchy hair loss of autoimmune origin7 (Figure 3). It usually presents as a single oval patch or multiple confluent patches of asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, non-scarring alopecia. Severity varies from a small bare patch to loss of hair on the entire scalp. So-called “exclamation point” hairs are a hallmark of the disorder. These hairs are usually located at the periphery of the patch and extend several millimeters above the scalp.16
Therapies using iPSCs are exciting because somatic cells of the recipient can be reprogrammed to en “ESC like” state.  Then mechanisms to differentiate these cells may be applied to generate the cells in need.  This is appealing to clinicians because this avoids the issue of histocompatibility and lifelong immunosuppression, which is needed if transplants use donor stem cells. 
No diagnostic test has been developed for alopecia areata, but an experienced dermatologist most often can identify it. Doctors sometimes need to take a small skin biopsy for a definitive diagnosis. The disorder causes patchy hair loss, often appearing as smooth patches on small areas at various locations on the scalp (occasionally, on other body parts as well). These patches can appear suddenly, as quickly as 24 hours, and some people report feeling tingling or pain at the site.
Treatments for alopecia areata include injecting small amounts of steroids like triamcinolone into affected patches to stimulate hair growth. Although localized injections may not be practical for large areas, often this is a very effective treatment in helping the hairs return sooner. Other treatments, such as oral steroids, other immunosuppressives, or ultraviolet light therapy, are available for more widespread or severe cases but may be impractical for most patients because of potential side effects or risks. In most mild cases, patients can easily cover up or comb over the affected areas. In more severe and chronic cases, some patients wear hairpieces; nowadays, some men shave their whole scalp now that this look has become fashionable. Recently, some beneficial results have been noted in small groups of patients with extensive alopecia areata or alopecia totalis with a JAK1/2 inhibitor, baricitinib (Olumiant). Long-term studies are under way.
The Mohawk is a longer style than some of the others mentioned here. We don’t mean anything crazy, but just a short to medium length Mohawk with trimmed sides. The trimmed sides will take attention away from your receding hairline, allowing you to define the shape of your hair with a Mohawk. The ‘Mohawk’ can be as long as you please, even if that’s just a centimeter.
"When I first diagnosed with areata, my doctor attributed it to stress. I had just lost my mother a couple years before to breast cancer. Fear sets in. Breast cancer runs through my family like a deep root within our family tree. That was the first year I had a mammogram. I was 11; it was all clear. I was about to start high school and was afraid of the teasing that would ensue.

This drug is a weak competitive inhibitor of androgen binding to androgen receptors. It also decreases the synthesis of testosterone. For these reasons, orally administered spironolactone has been tried in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, although questions remain about its usefulness. Spironolactone can be beneficial in women who also have hirsuitism.13 However, the FDA has not labeled this drug for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.
Never underestimate the power of a store display, especially when it promotes inclusivity. When Meredith Bailey’s daughter Mia was 4, she was diagnosed with alopecia – an autoimmune condition that causes hair loss. This past Christmas, Mia received a bald American Girl doll. Mia loved the doll but wondered why none of the bald dolls were displayed [...]
If you have thinning hair, choosing the right styling products is crucial. “It’s worth avoiding heavy products like clays, gels and pomades and instead opting for mousse on wet hair and texturising powders on dry hair to finish,” says Georgie Wynes-Devlin of The Wild Hare barber in London, who uses Redken’s Full Effect Mousse to plump up hair and the same brand’s Powder Grip to style very fine hair.

With a plethora of remedies out there, both medical and herbal, it can be difficult to decipher which one will work for you. If you’re planning to take any form of medication or prescribed shampoo then always consult a doctor, but for anything herbal, then it’s a course of trial and error. Treatments such as hair transplants and hair plugs are an option, but they aren’t the be all and end all solution.
If you’re lucky and are only experiencing a little hair thinning, once again, it’s best to go shorter on the sides and back as it creates an optical illusion making the top look thicker. There are a few different ways you can do this. Shaving the sides down to a lower grade will make the thinner hair on top look even thicker, however a tapered cut is a less harsh alternative.

What you can do: Slow the hair loss by applying minoxidil (Rogaine) to the scalp twice a day. The drug works on both women and men, although women should use a lower-strength formula to prevent unnecessary side effects. Women should not use minoxidil if they are pregnant or nursing. Men may be treated with finasteride (Propecia), an oral medication.
Stem cells are mother cells that have the potential to become any type of cell in the body. One of the main characteristics of stem cells is their ability to self-renew or multiply while maintaining the potential to develop into other types of cells. Stem cells can become cells of the blood, heart, bones, skin, muscles, brain etc. There are different sources of stem cells but all types of stem cells have the same capacity to develop into multiple types of cells.
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The most common treatment for alopecia areata is intralesional injection of a corticosteroid, preferably tri-amcinolone acetonide (Kenalog). The recommended dose is up to 3 mL of a 5 mg per mL solution injected into the mid-dermis in multiple sites 1 cm apart.17 A 0.5-inch-long 30-gauge needle is used, and 0.1 mL is injected into each site. Hair growth usually becomes apparent in four weeks. Treatment can be repeated every four to six weeks. Local skin atrophy, the predominant side effect, can be minimized by taking care to inject into the mid-dermis, rather than into the more superficial epidermis or the subdermal fat.
Hyperthyroidism (too much hormone) may cause inexplicable weight loss, heart palpitations, nervousness, irritability, diarrhea, moist skin, muscle weakness, and a startled appearance of the eyes. You may also experience hair loss as metabolism speeds up. Hyperthyroidism is much less common than hypothyroidism and affects about 1 percent of the US population.
Here’s the deal, says Dr. Marotta: “For most, 90 percent of the hair on your head is in the growing phase, while about 10 percent of your hair is in the ‘resting’ phase, meaning that 10 percent will fall out and leave room for new hair growth within a certain period of time. If you are losing more than 15 hairs per pull, it likely means more than 10 percent of the hair on your head is in the ‘resting’ phase,” he explains. “While this still may not be a true cause for concern, it would be a good idea to ask an expert about what to do to halt this process.”
These pluripotent stem cells have the potential to become almost any cell type and are only found during the first stages of development.  Scientists hope to understand how these cells differentiate during development.  As we begin to understand these developmental processes we may be able to apply them to stem cells grown in vitro and potentially regrow cells such as nerve, skin, intestine, liver, etc for transplantation. 

An unhealthy scalp environment can play a significant role in hair thinning by contributing to miniaturization or causing damage.[citation needed] Air and water pollutants[citation needed], environmental toxins,[citation needed] conventional styling products and excessive amounts of sebum have the potential to build up on the scalp.[citation needed]. This debris can block hair follicles and cause their deterioration and consequent miniaturization of hair.[citation needed]. It can also physically restrict hair growth or damage the hair cuticle[citation needed], leading to hair that is weakened and easily broken off before its natural lifecycle has ended.[citation needed]
Just as pregnancy hormone changes can cause hair loss, so can switching or going off birth-control pills. This can also cause telogen effluvium, and it may be more likely if you have a family history of hair loss. The change in the hormonal balance that occurs at menopause may also have the same result. “The androgen (male hormone) receptors on the scalp becoming activated,” explains Mark Hammonds, MD, a dermatologist with Scott & White Clinic in Round Rock, Texas. “The hair follicles will miniaturize and then you start to lose more hair.”
Alopecia can be divided into disorders in which the hair follicle is normal but the cycling of hair growth is abnormal and disorders in which the hair follicle is damaged. Androgenetic alopecia is the most common cause of hair loss in women. Other disorders include alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, cicatricial alopecia, and traumatic alopecias. The diagnosis is usually based on a thorough history and a focused physical examination. In some patients, selected laboratory tests or punch biopsy may be necessary. Topically administered minoxidil is labeled for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women. Corticosteroids and other agents are typically used in women with alopecia areata. Telogen effluvium is often a self-limited disorder. Because alopecia can be devastating to women, management should include an assessment for psychologic effects.
Stem cells are cells that have the potential to develop into many different or specialized cell types. Stem cells can be thought of as primitive, "unspecialized" cells that are able to divide and become specialized cells of the body such as liver cells, muscle cells, blood cells, and other cells with specific functions. Stem cells are referred to as "undifferentiated" cells because they have not yet committed to a developmental path that will form a specific tissue or organ. The process of changing into a specific cell type is known as differentiation. In some areas of the body, stem cells divide regularly to renew and repair the existing tissue. The bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract are examples of areas in which stem cells function to renew and repair tissue.
The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. Additionally, in instances where adult stem cells are obtained from the intended recipient (an autograft), the risk of rejection is essentially non-existent. Consequently, more US government funding is being provided for adult stem cell research.[40]
Vitamin D deficiency: Symptoms, causes, and prevention Vitamin D is vital for muscle and bone health, but poor nutrition and not being exposed to enough natural sunlight can cause a vitamin D deficiency. This can lead to brittle bones, mood changes, and chronic pain. In this article, learn more about the symptoms and risk factors, as well as how to source vitamin D. Read now
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The best and most readily understood example of a stem cell in humans is that of the fertilized egg, or zygote. A zygote is a single cell that is formed by the union of a sperm and ovum. The sperm and the ovum each carry half of the genetic material required to form a new individual. Once that single cell or zygote starts dividing, it is known as an embryo. One cell becomes two, two become four, four become eight, eight become sixteen, and so on, doubling rapidly until it ultimately grows into an entire sophisticated organism composed of many different kinds of specialized cells. That organism, a person, is an immensely complicated structure consisting of many, many, billions of cells with functions as diverse as those of your eyes, your heart, your immune system, the color of your skin, your brain, etc. All of the specialized cells that make up these body systems are descendants of the original zygote, a stem cell with the potential to ultimately develop into all kinds of body cells. The cells of a zygote are totipotent, meaning that they have the capacity to develop into any type of cell in the body.
Alopecia areata is believed to be an autoimmune disease resulting from a breech in the immune privilege of the hair follicles.[4] Risk factors include a family history of the condition.[2] Among identical twins if one is affected the other has about a 50% chance of also being affected.[2] The underlying mechanism involves failure by the body to recognize its own cells with subsequent immune mediated destruction of the hair follicle.[2]