Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is a disfiguring disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae bacteria. The disease is spread from person to person through nasal secretions or droplets. Symptoms and signs of leprosy include numbness, loss of temperature sensation, painless ulcers, eye damage, loss of digits, and facial disfigurement. Leprosy is treated with antibiotics and the dosage and length of time of administration depends upon which form of leprosy the patient has.


Female-pattern hair loss, called androgenic or androgenetic alopecia, is basically the female version of male pattern baldness. “If you come from a family where women started to have hair loss at a certain age, then you might be more prone to it,” says Dr. Glashofer. Unlike men, women don't tend to have a receding hairline, instead their part may widen and they may have noticeable thinning of hair.

Stem cells are a current focus of intense scientific and clinical interest, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS) where inherent repair is inadequate and functional damage is often permanent. The prospective therapeutic power of stem cells lies in their ability to generate new cells of many types and to effect tissue repair. By definition, a stem cell is multipotent, with the capacity to self-renew and to produce daughter cells capable of differentiating into multiple mature cell types (Fig. 63-1). However, progenitor cells, which possess the ability to generate a more limited range of adult cell types, may also contribute to tissue repair. Thus, stem and/or progenitor cells offer new hope for treating historically incurable diseases, such as glaucoma, via the selective replacement of degenerated cells to restore function. In addition, certain stem cell classes may confer neuroprotection to endogenous tissue without overt cell replacement.


"I shaved my head in August 2017, and let me tell you, it was liberating! The process of losing hair was emotional and tears were shed, but when I stopped covering up the bald spots and started rocking the bald, a weight had been lifted off my shoulder (literally and figuratively). I have had many strangers come up to me thanking me for my strength to boldly be bald when they could not. Again, there is no right way—as long as the way you go is because you have chosen that way. My beauty tip: do whatever the hell you want.
Multiple vitamins, including biotin, have been promoted for hair growth, but solid scientific studies for many of these claims are lacking. While taking biotin and other supplements marketed for hair, skin, and nails probably won't worsen anything, it may also not necessarily help the situation. Therefore, advertised hair-regrowth supplements should be approached with mild caution. There is only anecdotal evidence that oral or topical application garlic, onion juice, saw palmetto, coconut oil, evening primrose oil, apple cider vinegar, creatine, and pumpkin seed oil are of benefit for hair loss.
People inherit baldness through their mother's male relatives. Actually, baldness is determined by genes from both the mother and the father. Looking at one's family can give someone at best an educated guess about how he or she will turn out. Studies are ongoing in this field, and current research has been inconclusive about the inheritance patterns.
However, there are also some side effects you need to concern. Always make sure you follow the guidelines on how to use it properly! Sometime the use of minoxidil can be potential to cause scalp irritation. It may also lead to the hair growth on wrong place such as on the side of forehead /face. If you experience these side effects, discontinue it!
What you can do: Avoid using appliances that overheat your hair. Set your hair dryer on cool and low settings, and minimize your use of flat and curling irons. Don’t dye your hair more than one or two shades from its normal color: The more severe the color change, the more chemicals you require, which can make hair break. If you use hair gel or hair spray, don’t wait for it to dry before you comb through it, because the hair will harden and be more likely to break. Try Art Naturals Organic Argan Oil Hair Loss Shampoo for Hair Regrowth along with some of these other best products for thinning hair to add volume while strengthening hair strands.
Getting your hair sleek and straight by applying too much force while combing your hair can easily damage your hair. If you put too much force, you might be pulling your hair out of your head by the roots. If this is happening, you'll notice a lot of extra hairs in your comb or brush. Make sure that you comb your hair gently and use hair conditioner to comb through it easier.
Amniotic fluid, which bathes the fetus in the womb, contains fetal cells including mesenchymal stem cells, which are able to make a variety of tissues. Many pregnant women elect to have amniotic fluid drawn to test for chromosome defects, the procedure known as amniocentesis. This fluid is normally discarded after testing, but Children’s Hospital Boston surgeon Dario Fauza, MD, a Principal Investigator at Childrens and an affiliate member of the Stem Cell Program, has been investigating the idea of isolating mesenchymal stem cells and using them to grow new tissues for babies who have birth defects detected while they are still in the womb, such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia. These tissues would match the baby genetically, so would not be rejected by the immune system, and could be implanted either in utero or after the baby is born.
"I researched everything on how to live and cope with alopecia via the internet, blogs, social media, YouTube, etc. I tried using makeup to cover my bald spots, and then a wig, but I never felt comfortable. I eventually reached a point of exhaustion and decided it was better to embrace my alopecia and shave the rest of my hair off in March 2017. I began to gain my confidence back after admiring all the women who share their alopecia with the world, realizing I too, can be one of them and that I have so many things to be grateful for.
Foods rich in B vitamins, zinc and iron (like breakfast cereals, liver and apricots) and silica (bananas and – handily – beer) are especially good for hair health. “People with hair loss caused by issues other than male pattern baldness are often deficient in vitamins B12,” says Tarver, who points out that a supplement may be especially important for vegetarians since dietary B12 can only be obtained from animal sources.
Because this is an issue that increasingly affects women as they get older, there are also a variety of products and tips that can help combat hair loss in women. If you’ve noticed your hair seems to be on the thinner side lately, try using some of the tips below to remedy the problem. If you don’t start seeing results within a few months, a simple blood test by your doctor can determine if the hair loss is caused by an underlying health condition.
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There are many different types of hair loss. Some, like genetic andogenetic alopecia (female pattern hair loss) are irreversible and out of your control—you get the hand you're dealt. But others, like the very common telogen effluvium, which is temporarily increased shedding caused by a wide variety of health and hormonal changes, can be fixed. With telogen effluvium hair loss, you need to think back to four or so months before to determine the culprit, Bethanee Schlosser, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology and director of the Women's Skin Health Program for Northwestern Medicine, tells SELF. "Shedding peaks about four months after the incident" that caused it, she explains. Other types of hair loss may happen progressively over some time and depending on whether they damage the hair follicle, can be either permanent or fleeting.
If you're going through or about to enter the menopause, changes in your body may also have an effect on your hair. "Hair loss becomes more prevalent leading up to and after the menopause" reveals Anabel. That being said, "it's important to realise that our hair ages, and as we get older, hair naturally gets finer. It's a totally normal part of the ageing process."

It's no myth that excess stress can literally make your hair fall out. How does this happen? Well, it can raise androgen (male hormone) levels, which in turn can causes hair loss. "Stress may also trigger scalp problems, such as dandruff, disrupt eating habits and mess with the digestive system – all of which can have a negative impact on hair" says Anabel.

Because thinning hair and hair loss is a huge cosmetic concern for women, many companies are now creating products specifically aimed at restoring hair growth. This list of hair loss shampoos offers a variety of products that contain numerous oils and minerals that may aid in hair growth, destroy bacteria that can cause hair breakage and loss, increase blood circulation to the scalp, and more.
Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic "somatic" or "adult" stem cells.  Scientists discovered ways to derive embryonic stem cells from early mouse embryos nearly 30 years ago, in 1981. The detailed study of the biology of mouse stem cells led to the discovery, in 1998, of a method to derive stem cells from human embryos and grow the cells in the laboratory. These cells are called human embryonic stem cells. The embryos used in these studies were created for reproductive purposes through in vitro fertilization procedures. When they were no longer needed for that purpose, they were donated for research with the informed consent of the donor. In 2006, researchers made another breakthrough by identifying conditions that would allow some specialized adult cells to be "reprogrammed" genetically to assume a stem cell-like state. This new type of stem cell is now known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

For younger children, treatment consists primarily of strong corticosteroid ointments or creams applied to the bald areas. Teenagers, who may be sufficiently motivated to have their hair return, may tolerate steroid injections into the scalp. Minoxidil (Rogaine) is often used in additional to topical steroid treatment. Anthralin applied to the skin for a short time and then washed off may also be used. Hair growth may come back in 8-12 weeks.
"I shaved my head in August 2017, and let me tell you, it was liberating! The process of losing hair was emotional and tears were shed, but when I stopped covering up the bald spots and started rocking the bald, a weight had been lifted off my shoulder (literally and figuratively). I have had many strangers come up to me thanking me for my strength to boldly be bald when they could not. Again, there is no right way—as long as the way you go is because you have chosen that way. My beauty tip: do whatever the hell you want.
The mother was more worried than the child: she didn’t want to see her beautiful girl become bald. The girl was pleased that the bald spots could be completely covered with her long hair, but she didn’t want anyone to see them. The child was otherwise healthy. She did not have any chronic medical problems and was not taking any medications. No one else in the family had a similar problem.
Age is a massive factor in men losing their hair as 40% of men have noticeable hair loss by the time they’re 35, but some may be even earlier, again, this is down to genetics. Ask your Dad or Grandad what age they started to shed as this may be an indication for your own outcome. Again, knowing how to stop a receding hairline can be tricky, as there isn’t a fundamental hair loss cure, but there are hair loss treatments available should you wish to do so.
During embryonic development these inner cell mass cells continuously divide and become more specialized. For example, a portion of the ectoderm in the dorsal part of the embryo specializes as 'neurectoderm', which will become the future central nervous system.[11] Later in development, neurulation causes the neurectoderm to form the neural tube. At the neural tube stage, the anterior portion undergoes encephalization to generate or 'pattern' the basic form of the brain. At this stage of development, the principal cell type of the CNS is considered a neural stem cell. These neural stem cells are pluripotent, as they can generate a large diversity of many different neuron types, each with unique gene expression, morphological, and functional characteristics. The process of generating neurons from stem cells is called neurogenesis. One prominent example of a neural stem cell is the radial glial cell, so named because it has a distinctive bipolar morphology with highly elongated processes spanning the thickness of the neural tube wall, and because historically it shared some glial characteristics, most notably the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).[12][13] The radial glial cell is the primary neural stem cell of the developing vertebrate CNS, and its cell body resides in the ventricular zone, adjacent to the developing ventricular system. Neural stem cells are committed to the neuronal lineages (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes), and thus their potency is restricted.[11]
Stem cells are unique cells: They have the ability to become many different types of cells, and they can replicate rapidly. Stem cells play a huge part in the body’s healing process, and the introduction of new stem cells has always showed great promise in the treatment of many conditions. It wasn’t until we found out where and how to isolate these cells that we started using them for transplants. Although a person’s own stem cells are always 100 percent compatible, there are risks in using someone else’s stem cells, especially if the donor and recipient are not immediately related. The discovery of certain markers allows us to see how compatible a donor’s and host’s cells will be. The relatively recent discovery of stem cells in the umbilical cord's blood has proven advantageous over acquiring stem cells from other sources. Researchers are currently conducting clinical trials with stem cells, adding to the growing list of 80 diseases which they can treat.
If you’re noticing that your hairline is changing, it’s time to fight back against a receding hairline. Don’t resign yourself to male pattern baldness. Instead, explore receding hairline treatment to reverse your hair loss. At Dr. Jezic’s Hair Transplant Center, we utilize the latest hair restoration treatment options for a hairline transplant, including Neograft and Artas FUE technology, which involves robotic surgery instead of manual procedures.
If you have thinning hair, choosing the right styling products is crucial. “It’s worth avoiding heavy products like clays, gels and pomades and instead opting for mousse on wet hair and texturising powders on dry hair to finish,” says Georgie Wynes-Devlin of The Wild Hare barber in London, who uses Redken’s Full Effect Mousse to plump up hair and the same brand’s Powder Grip to style very fine hair.
The dreaded feeling when you start to lose your hair can be horrible, but there are some measure you can take to help keep your luscious locks in tact and ready to fight another day. Take a look at your lifestyle; if you’re particularly stressed, have had a change in diet or have male pattern baldness in your family then the likelihood of you losing your hair is higher.
Many hair transplant options are available, but follicular unit extraction differs significantly from follicular unit transplants. With FUT, the specialist cuts the scalp with a scalpel to remove a strip of scalp for harvesting the hair follicles. This procedure involves pain, stitches, healing time, and scarring. With FUE, the doctor does not use a scalpel, which means minimal pain, no stitches, no excessive healing time, and no telltale scarring. In fact, you should be completely healed within 14 days and often much sooner. By choosing FUE instead of FUT, the process will be faster, which means you can reach your goals much sooner. You don’t need to worry about higher prices with FUE, either; in most cases, the procedures have similar pricing structures.
Therapies using iPSCs are exciting because somatic cells of the recipient can be reprogrammed to en “ESC like” state.  Then mechanisms to differentiate these cells may be applied to generate the cells in need.  This is appealing to clinicians because this avoids the issue of histocompatibility and lifelong immunosuppression, which is needed if transplants use donor stem cells. 
"I researched everything on how to live and cope with alopecia via the internet, blogs, social media, YouTube, etc. I tried using makeup to cover my bald spots, and then a wig, but I never felt comfortable. I eventually reached a point of exhaustion and decided it was better to embrace my alopecia and shave the rest of my hair off in March 2017. I began to gain my confidence back after admiring all the women who share their alopecia with the world, realizing I too, can be one of them and that I have so many things to be grateful for.
Induced pluripotent stem cells are stem cells that are created in the laboratory, a happy medium between adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells.  iPSCs are created through the introduction of embryonic genes into a somatic cell (a skin cell for example) that cause it to revert back to a “stem cell like” state.  These cells, like ESCs are considered pluripotent Discovered in 2007, this method of genetic reprogramming to create embryonic like cells, is novel and needs many more years of research before use in clinical therapies.  
A receding hairline is most common in men due to specific hormones called "Androgen" and "Testosterone". Androgen and Testosterone play a vital role in the cause of a receding hairline. Male pattern baldness, also known by its medical term, Androgenic Alopecia, is essentially due to the shrinking of the hair follicles, thus making the hair strand thinner, eventually leading to hair loss and worse, baldness. If a male has hair follicles that are genetically inclined to react with the hormone androgen, they will more than likely be prone to a receding hairline at some point in their life. In addition, the hormone "Testosterone" can react with the enzyme, 5-AR or 5-alpha reductase, which could lead to Androgen Dihydrotestosterone. This, in turn, affects the growth of hair, causing hair loss and a receding hairline. Thinning hair or a receding hairline is also hereditary and found in inherited genes. If your father and mother have receding hairlines, the children, especially the males, are prone to receding hairline too.
Stem cells have generated more public and professional interest than almost any other topic in biology. One reason stem cells capture the imagination of so many is the hope that understanding their unique properties may reveal paths leading to new treatments for a variety of degenerative illnesses. And although the field of stem cell biology has grown rapidly, considerable confusion and disagreement as to the nature of stem cells exists. This confusion can be partly attributed to the sometimes idiosyncratic terms and definitions used to describe stem cells. Although definitions can be restrictive, they are useful when they provide a foundation for mutual understanding and experimental standardization. This chapter presents some definitions of stem cells, discusses the origin of stem cells, and suggests criteria or standards for identifying, isolating, and characterizing stem cells. Finally, the notion of ‘stemness’ and its possible application in understanding stem cell biology is explained.
Congenital triangular alopecia – It is a triangular, or oval in some cases, shaped patch of hair loss in the temple area of the scalp that occurs mostly in young children. The affected area mainly contains vellus hair follicles or no hair follicles at all, but it does not expand. Its causes are unknown, and although it is a permanent condition, it does not have any other effect on the affected individuals.[24]
In this study, application of chemotherapy treatment in AML‐ETO9a leukemia mice led to the enrichment of a chemotherapy‐resistant cell population identified as Lin‐c‐Kit+c‐MPL+. This c‐MPL‐positive cell population within Lin‐c‐Kit+ leukemia cells included a high percentage of cells in a quiescent state, enhanced colony formation ability and high potential for leukemia initiation. The results indicate that c‐MPL is a candidate leukemia stem cell (LSC) surface marker that may serve as a therapeutic target for the elimination of LSCs.
Re-growing hair: It is likely that the hair will grow back even without treatment. It may fall out again, though. Most patients lose their hair more than once before the disease goes away for good. Even people who lose all the hair on their scalp and body can have their hair grow back. When hair loss is widespread (lots of hair loss on the scalp and/or body), there is a greater chance that the hair will not re-grow.
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