Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic "somatic" or "adult" stem cells. The functions and characteristics of these cells will be explained in this document. Scientists discovered ways to derive embryonic stem cells from early mouse embryos more than 30 years ago, in 1981. The detailed study of the biology of mouse stem cells led to the discovery, in 1998, of a method to derive stem cells from human embryos and grow the cells in the laboratory. These cells are called human embryonic stem cells. The embryos used in these studies were created for reproductive purposes through in vitro fertilization procedures. When they were no longer needed for that purpose, they were donated for research with the informed consent of the donor. In 2006, researchers made another breakthrough by identifying conditions that would allow some specialized adult cells to be "reprogrammed" genetically to assume a stem cell-like state. This new type of stem cell, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), will be discussed in a later section of this document.
Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is a disfiguring disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae bacteria. The disease is spread from person to person through nasal secretions or droplets. Symptoms and signs of leprosy include numbness, loss of temperature sensation, painless ulcers, eye damage, loss of digits, and facial disfigurement. Leprosy is treated with antibiotics and the dosage and length of time of administration depends upon which form of leprosy the patient has.
Stem cells are important for living organisms for many reasons. In the 3- to 5-day-old embryo, called a blastocyst, the inner cells give rise to the entire body of the organism, including all of the many specialized cell types and organs such as the heart, lungs, skin, sperm, eggs and other tissues. In some adult tissues, such as bone marrow, muscle, and brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease.

Hair loss comes with age. We men tend to think that we'll age 'gracefully' with a head full of hair past our prime. Most of us know a receding hairline is more common in men than women! About the age of 36, quite a number of us will begin experiencing a bit of hair loss. By 50, others might already have pronounced baldness due to thinning hair. It may seem terrible, but there are a couple of ways we can tackle this hair issue. Causes like infections, diet, chemical hair products, stress, even drugs! Some of these things we can avoid completely.
Mention your baby's hair loss to his doctor, especially after your baby's 6-month birthday. Chances are the hair loss is normal, but his doctor can make sure that there isn't an underlying medical condition and help with treatment if there happens to be a problem. If your child has ringworm, for example, an antifungal medication will be prescribed.
Losing some hair every day is completely natural. It's a sign your body's growing new, healthy ones to replace the old. In fact, losing up to 100 hairs per day is normal. You can also kind of get an idea of what's normal for you by just paying attention to what you typically see in your brush or shower drain. "If all of a sudden you're noticing a lot more, or your ponytail is thinner or you're seeing more scalp," then you may be losing more hair than you should, Francesca Fusco, M.D., dermatologist at Wexler Dermatology in NYC and assistant clinical professor of dermatology at Mount Sinai, tells SELF.
The comb over is a pretty controversial style. It can work well, but it can also go disastrously – which is why we’re putting it so low on the list. The deciding factor with a comb over is whether you have thinning hair, or just a receding hairline. If you have overly thin hair, just admit this style isn’t for you and look for something else while you try to grow your hair thicker. Otherwise, this haircut might just be what you’re looking for. If you’ve got relatively long hair and want to keep it that way, then do consider this style (whatever you do, just please don’t let it hang and try to hide your hairline).
Hypotrichosis is a condition of abnormal hair patterns, predominantly loss or reduction. It occurs, most frequently, by the growth of vellus hair in areas of the body that normally produce terminal hair. Typically, the individual's hair growth is normal after birth, but shortly thereafter the hair is shed and replaced with sparse, abnormal hair growth. The new hair is typically fine, short and brittle, and may lack pigmentation. Baldness may be present by the time the subject is 25 years old.[7]

Androgenic alopecia is a genetic condition that can affect both men and women. Men with this condition, called male pattern baldness, can begin suffering hair loss as early as their teens or early 20s. It's characterized by a receding hairline and gradual disappearance of hair from the crown and frontal scalp. Women with this condition, called female pattern baldness, don't experience noticeable thinning until their 40s or later. Women experience a general thinning over the entire scalp, with the most extensive hair loss at the crown.
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Most cases of increased shedding will gradually resolve on their own without treatment, Schlosser says. But if your hair doesn't return to its normal fullness after six to nine months, see a doctor for an evaluation to find out if something else is going on. "If you ever have any symptoms like itching, pain, burning, flaking, redness, or notice you can't see as many hair follicles anymore, you should seek help sooner." See your primary care provider or go directly to a dermatologist who specializes in treating hair loss. They can determine what type it is and what the right treatment approach is for you.
Bummer, we know. But don’t lose hope if you find yourself counted among their ranks because, believe it or not, there are measures you can take to make a thinning crown less ... shall we say, conspicuous—and we’re not talking about toupees. And so, for all the George Costanzas of the world, we’ve compiled but a handful of the things a guy can do to manage a worsening bald spot, here.

Although oral corticosteroid therapy is effective in the treatment of alopecia areata, it is seldom used because of potential adverse effects. Systemic treatment may be indicated in women with progressive alopecia areata. For active, extensive, or rapidly spreading alopecia areata, the recommended treatment in adults weighing more than 60 kg (132 lb) is prednisone in a dosage of 40 mg per day for seven days; the corticosteroid is then tapered slowly by 5 mg every few days for six weeks.8 For less extensive alopecia areata, prednisone is given in a dosage of 20 mg per day or every other day, followed by slow tapering in increments of 1 mg once the condition is stable. Oral prednisone therapy can be used in combination with topical or injected corticosteroid therapy, as well as with topical minoxidil therapy.


So, you’ve tried making do with your current ‘do, but no matter how hard you try, you can’t quite seem to make your bald spot any less apparent? Well, that’s where a good ol’ haircut comes in. If done correctly—by which we mean, your barber crops everything nice and close to the head, with enough texture to distract the eye from anywhere hair might be lacking—a solid chop can make all the difference when it comes to embracing your new bare-scalped reality. And here are the testimonials to prove it.
Abrupt Hair Loss. When your hair loss is triggered suddenly, it can be a result of physiological factors that include trauma or depression. This condition is referred to as "Telogen Effluvium", when the hair seems to fall out rapidly. The best way to help with the hair loss is to help yourself, and address whatever issues you are dealing with. This may include seeing a therapist.
Every hair follicle continually goes through three phases: anagen (growth), catagen (involution, or a brief transition between growth and resting), and telogen (resting).3 Disorders of alopecia can be divided into those in which the hair follicle is normal but the cycling of hair growth is abnormal (e.g., telogen effluvium) and those in which the hair follicle is damaged (e.g., cicatricial alopecia).

The symptoms: The condition can occur in three forms. Alopecia areata commonly causes round, smooth patches of baldness on the scalp, eyebrows, or legs, Dr. Fusco says. Total hair loss on the head is known as alopecia totalis, while hair loss that occurs all over the body is called alopecia universalis. "Some patients have reported that before the bald spot occurred, they felt something in that area—a tingling or an irritation," Dr. Fusco says.
Hair coloring causes less damage than permanent waves and straightening. The more often you have these procedures performed; the more damage will be done to your hair. If you wear your hair in dreadlocks or tight braids, you may cause extensive damage to your hair follicles (roots), as the tightness of these hairstyles puts a lot of stress on the follicle.
Oral immunosuppressants, like methotrexate and cyclosporine, are another option you can try. They work by blocking the immune system’s response, but they can’t be used for a long period of time due to the risk of side effects, such as high blood pressure, liver and kidney damage, and an increased risk of serious infections and a type of cancer called lymphoma.
During the early stages of embryonic development the cells remain relatively undifferentiated (immature) and appear to possess the ability to become, or differentiate, into almost any tissue within the body. For example, cells taken from one section of an embryo that might have become part of the eye can be transferred into another section of the embryo and could develop into blood, muscle, nerve, or liver cells.
First, check for fleas or mange. Is the fur just falling out on it's own, or is your cat overgrooming itself? If it's just falling out, there are too many things it could be, allergies, disease, illness, or stress. Get your kitty to a vet. If the hair loss is due to overgrooming, it could be fleas, stress, or just itchy skin. Then the kitty needs a bath with oatmeal and then try a half cup of apple cider vinegar diluted with half a cup of water in a spray bottle. Mist your kitty with it every few weeks and rub it into his skin. (The smell will go away once it dries.) The vinegar will stop kitty from overgrooming, will clear up dandruff, kill fleas, stop the itchies, and make the fur shiny. I use it on my kitty for his overgrooming, and on myself to stop dandruff, it really works great! (11/30/2008)

Most cases of increased shedding will gradually resolve on their own without treatment, Schlosser says. But if your hair doesn't return to its normal fullness after six to nine months, see a doctor for an evaluation to find out if something else is going on. "If you ever have any symptoms like itching, pain, burning, flaking, redness, or notice you can't see as many hair follicles anymore, you should seek help sooner." See your primary care provider or go directly to a dermatologist who specializes in treating hair loss. They can determine what type it is and what the right treatment approach is for you.
Alopecia is hair loss that can be caused by heredity, aging, disease, medications or lifestyle. The timing and course of hair loss can provide clues to its cause. For example, hair loss that comes on suddenly may be attributed to illness, diet, or medical treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation. Gradual hair loss that becomes more prominent over the years is likely to be hereditary and a normal occurrence of aging. This form of hair loss, known as androgenetic alopecia, is the most common cause and a natural symptom of the aging process.
For more severe widespread disease, options include short contact anthralin treatment (Micanol) and contact hypersensitization. The most effective treatment currently available is contact hypersensitization with some studies showing 40% success rates. It causes a local dermatitis (rash) with swollen lymph nodes. Treatment needs to be continued from months to a year or so to get a good result.
There are two types of identification tests for female pattern baldness: the Ludwig Scale and the Savin Scale. Both track the progress of diffused thinning, which typically begins on the crown of the head behind the hairline, and becomes gradually more pronounced. For male pattern baldness, the Hamilton–Norwood scale tracks the progress of a receding hairline and/or a thinning crown, through to a horseshoe-shaped ring of hair around the head and on to total baldness.
Multipotent stem cells are also found in amniotic fluid. These stem cells are very active, expand extensively without feeders and are not tumorigenic. Amniotic stem cells are multipotent and can differentiate in cells of adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, endothelial, hepatic and also neuronal lines.[41] Amniotic stem cells are a topic of active research.

Just as you should have a nice routine when caring for your skin, you should have something to keep your hair healthy, too. In addition to Finasteride and Minoxidil, it is important to commit to using an everyday shampoo that can help prevent hair loss. The important thing is to choose a shampoo that is gentle enough for everyday use but still effective enough to help you get the results you want. Try a DHT-blocking shampoo that is gentler than most Ketoconazole shampoos found in drugstores. It is also best if you can find something that can make your hair appear fuller and thicker with the help of volume-boosting ingredients.
Given their unique regenerative abilities, stem cells offer new potentials for treating diseases such as diabetes, and heart disease. However, much work remains to be done in the laboratory and the clinic to understand how to use these cells for cell-based therapies to treat disease, which is also referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine.
A group of topical medications called prostaglandin analogs have recently began undergoing testing for potential hair regrowth. They may be used in men and women. These drugs are not currently FDA approved for scalp hair loss. Currently, these are primarily used for eyelash enhancement. One of the new medications is called bimatoprost (Latisse). Further testing and studies are required to assess the efficacy of these products in scalp hair loss. Bimatoprost solution is sometimes used off-label for help in selected cases of hair loss. It is currently FDA approved for cosmetic eyelash enhancement. Studies have shown it can treat hypotrichosis (short or sparse) of the eyelashes by increasing their growth, including length, thickness, and darkness. This medication is also commercially available as Lumigan, which is used to treat glaucoma. It is not known exactly how this medication works in hair regrowth, but it is thought to lengthen the anagen phase (active phase) of hair growth. Interestingly, during routine medical use of Lumigan eyedrops for glaucoma patients, it was serendipitously found that eyelashes got longer and thicker in many users. This led to clinical trials and the approval of cosmetic use of Latisse for eyelashes.
Routine use of stem cells in therapy has been limited to blood-forming stem cells (hematopoietic stem cells) derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood. Bone marrow transplantation is the most familiar form of stem cell therapy and the only instance of stem cell therapy in common use. It is used to treat cancers of the blood cells (leukemias) and other disorders of the blood and bone marrow.

The loss of hair can be sudden, developing in just a few days or over a period of a few weeks. There may be itching or burning in the area before hair loss. The hair follicles are not destroyed and so hair can re-grow if the inflammation of the follicles subsides. People who experience just a few patches of hair loss often have a spontaneous, full recovery without any form of treatment.
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